An UpdatedReview onBioinformatics and Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development Process
Drug discovery and development is a time taking process, it has high risk also. Sometimes it get positive result, sometimes not. To discover, development and bring it into the market; pharmaceuticals companies invest millions of money. From drug discovery to bring it into the market these is a step by step procedure, it requires proper human resources, updated technological support and huge investment. A convenient surveillance is needed into the whole process from discovery to marketization that new entity. So these are the reasons for increasing cost in new drug development and research. But in recent time bioinformatics and pharmacogenomics made a huge impact on new drug development. Its helps in drug target identification, drug designing, clinical trial, not only bioinformatics and pharmacogenomics reduces the cost in healthcare management but also improves the selection of proper effective therapy and development of personalized medicines.
2. Gereth Thomas, “Medicalchemistryan introduction”, 2edition John Wiley Publication,2007; 5-72.
3. Whittaker P .What is the relevance of bioinformatics to pharmacology? Trend Pharmacol Sci. 2003; 24:434–439
4. Song CM, Lim SJ, Tong JC. Recent advances in computer aided drug design. Brief Bioinform. 2009; 10:579–591
5. Ortega SS, Cara LC, Salvador MK. In silico pharmacology for a multidisciplinary drug discovery process. Drug Metabol Drug Interact.2012; 27:199–207.
6. Victor Maojo, MD, PhD, Casimir A. Kulikowski, PhD, Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics: Collaborations on the Road to Genomic Medicine?, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,November 2003; 10(6):515–522.
7. Majhi, Vinayak & Paul, Sudip & Jain, Rachna . Bioinformatics for Healthcare Applications.2019; 204-207.
8. Kesh S, Raghupathi W. Critical issues in bioinformatics and computing. Perspectives in health information management/AHIMA, American Health Information Management Association. 2004;1.
9. Cordeiro MN, Speck-Planche A. Computer-aided drug design, synthesis and evaluation of new anti-cancer drugs. Curr Top Med Chem. 2012; 12(24):2703-4.
10. Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, Li PW, Mural RJ, Sutton GG, Smith HO, Yandell M, Evans CA, Holt RA, Gocayne JD. The sequence of the human genome. science. 2001 Feb 16; 291(5507):1304-51.
11. Marinou M, Platis D, Ataya FS, Chronopoulou E, Vlachakis D, et al. Structure-Based Design and Application of a Nucleotide Coenzyme Mimetic Ligand: Application to the Affinity Purification of Nucleotide Dependent Enzymes. J Chromatogr A. 2018; 1535:88-100.
12. Leelananda SP, Lindert S. Computational methods in drug discovery. Beilstein J Org Chem.2016; 12:2694-2718.
13. Śledź P, Caflisch A. Protein structure-based drug design: from docking to molecular dynamics. Curr Opin Struct Biol.2018, 48: 93-102.
14. Klebe G. Recent developments in structure-based drug design. J Mol Med.2000; 78:269-281.
15. Katara P, Grover A, Kuntal H, Sharma V. In silico prediction of drug targets in vibrio cholerae. Protoplasma. 2011; 248:799–804
16. Chen YP, Chen F. Identifying targets for drug discovery using bioinformatics. Expert Opin Ther Targ.2008; 12:383–389
17. Loh M, Soong R. Challenges and pitfalls in the introduction of pharmacogenetics for cancer. Ann Acad Med Singap.2011; 40:369–374
18. Yamanishi Y, Kotera M, Kanehisa M, Goto S. Drug-target interaction prediction from chemical, genomic and pharmacological data in an integrated framework. Bioinformatics.2010; 26:i246–i254
19. Ataya FS .Bioinformatics, Genomics, and Proteomics Tools in Drug Design. J Drug Res Dev.2019; 5(1):1-6.
20. Katara, Pramod. Role of bioinformatics and pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development process. Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics.2013; 2. 10.1007/s13721-013-0039-5.
21. Gilbert J, Henske P, Singh A. Rebuilding Big Pharma’s Business Model. In vivo Business and Medicine Report,2003; 21(10).
22. Ratti E, Trist D .Continuing evolution of the drug discovery process. Pure Appl Chem.2001; 73:67–75
23. Lewis RA. The Development of Molecular Modelling Programs: The Use and Limitations of Physical Models. In: Livingstone DJ, Davis AM (eds) Drug Design Strategies: Quantitative Approaches. Royal Society of Chemistry,UK. 2011; 88-107.
24. Patrick GL. Drug discovery: finding a lead. In: Patrick GL (eds) An introduction to medicinal chemistry.2013. 5th edition, Oxford Press, UK 189.
25. Dickson M, Gagnon JP .Key factors in the rising cost of new drug discovery and development. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2014a.3:417–429.
26. Adams CP, Brantner VV. Spending on new drug development. Health Econ.2010; 19:130–141
27. Klein DB, Tabarrok A. The drug discovery, development and approval process.2003www.fdareview.org
28. Tsaioun K, Bottlaender M, Mabondzo A, Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation. ADME–avoiding drug development mistakes early: central nervous system drug discovery perspective. BMC Neurol.2009; 12(9).
29. Blundell TL, Sibanda BL, Montalvao RW, Brewerton S, Chelliah V, Worth CL, Harmer NJ, Davies O, Burke D Structural biology and bioinformatics in drug design: opportunities and challenges for target identification and lead discovery. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.2006; 361:413–423
30. Nida Tabassum Khan. “Clinical Bioinformatics: Linking Pharmacogenomics with Informatics”. Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences.2018; 2(3) : 67-70
31. Ann K Daly, Pharmacogenetics: a general review on progress to date, British Medical Bulletin, 2017; 124(1): 65–79
32. Whirl-Carrillo M., et al. “Pharmacogenomics knowledge for personalized medicine”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.2012; 92(4) : 414
33. Squassina A., et al. “Realities and expectations of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine: impact of translating genetic knowledge into clinical practice”. Pharmacogenomics.2010; 11(8):1149-1167
34. Kalow W. “Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: origin, status, and the hope for personalized medicine”. The Pharmacogenomics Journal.2006; 6(3): 162
35. Xie HG and Frueh FW. “Pharmacogenomics steps toward personalized medicine”. Personalized Medicine.2005; 2.4 :325- 337
36. Ginsburg GS and Willard HF. “Genomic and personalized medicine: foundations and applications”. Translational Research.2009; 154(6):277-287.
37. Sadée W and Dai Z. “Pharmacogenetics/genomics and personalized medicine”. Human Molecular Genetics.2005; 14.2: R207-R214
38. Nelson MR, Bacanu SA, Mosteller M, Li L, Bowman CE, Roses AD, Lai EH, Ehm MG. Genome-wide approaches to identify pharmacogenetic contributions to adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009 ;9(1):23-33.
39. Liou SY, Stringer F, Hirayama M. The impact of pharmacogenomics research on drug development. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet.2012; 27:2–8
40. Bernard S.The 5 Myths of Pharmacogenomics. Pharm Executive.2003; 23:70–78
41. Rioux PP .Clinical trials in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: methods and applications. Am J Health Syst Pharm.2000; 57:887–901.
42. Haga SB, Burke W. Practical ethics: establishing a pathway to benefit for complex pharmacogenomic tests. Clin Pharmacol Ther.2011; 90:25–27
43. Ensom MH, Chang TK, Patel P. Pharmacogenetics: the therapeutic drug monitoring of the future? Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001; 40:783–802.
44. Gurwitz D, Lunshof JE, Dedoussis G, Flordellis CS, Fuhr U, Kirchheiner J, Licinio J, Llerena A, Manolopoulos VG, Sheffield LJ, Siest G. Pharmacogenomics education: International Society of Pharmacogenomics recommendations for medical, pharmaceutical, and health schools deans of education. The pharmacogenomics journal. 2005; 5(4):221-5.
45. Lee SS. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities. American journal of public health. 2005; 95(12):2133-8.
46. O. Oyelade, J. Soyemi, I. Isewon, and O. O. Obembe, "Bioinformatics, healthcare informatics and analytics: an imperative for improved healthcare system," International Journal of Applied Information Systems, 2015; 8:1-6.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).