A review articles of Clinical outcomes, and the origin, transmission, Immunologic aspects of characteristics and public health response to novel corona virus (COVID19)

  • Prangya P Acharya Department of Microbiology, Sambalpur University, Odisha
  • Prasant Kumar Panda Department of Clinical Microbiology, Sum Ultimate Bhubaneswar
  • Deepthi Kiran Department of Microbiology, Bangalore University, Bangalore
  • Ajay Kumar Sahu Department of Microbiology, Bangalore University, Bangalore


diseased 2019 has spread throughout china and received worldwide attention, on 30th January 2020. World health organization officially declared the covid19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. In December 2019, cases of unidentified pneumonia with a history of exposure in the human sea food market were reported in wuhan, a novel corona virus was identified to be accountable for this disease, by world health organization confirmed that this disease can spread through human to human through droplet of sneezing, and its spread rapidly around the country and the world, as of 18th February 2020 the number of confirmed cases of covid19 had reached 75, 198 with 2009 fatalities. Serve acute respiratory syndrome and middle east respiratory syndrome, among the symptom composition of the 45 fatality cases has collected, several independent research groups have indentified that SARAS – CoV-2 belongs to the beta corona virus with highly angiotensin converting enzyme as that for  SARAS – CoV-2, Corona viruses (CoVs), incorporated positive-sense RNA diseases, are depicted by the club-like spikes that adventure from their surface, an abnormally huge RNA genome, and a specific replication technique. CoVs cause a selection of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory sickness in chickens too possibly deadly human respiratory diseases. Here, we provide a quick presentation to CoVs talking.


Keywords: corona virus, positive sense RNA infection, transmission, clinical outcomes, characteristics of covid19, public health response


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Prangya P Acharya, Department of Microbiology, Sambalpur University, Odisha

Department of Microbiology, Sambalpur University, Odisha

Prasant Kumar Panda, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Sum Ultimate Bhubaneswar

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Sum Ultimate Bhubaneswar

Deepthi Kiran, Department of Microbiology, Bangalore University, Bangalore

Department of Microbiology, Bangalore University, Bangalore

Ajay Kumar Sahu, Department of Microbiology, Bangalore University, Bangalore

Department of Microbiology, Bangalore University, Bangalore


1. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Semin Immunopathol. 2017;39(5):529–39.

2. Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell. 2020; 181(2):281–92.

3. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, Si HR, Zhu Y, Li B, Huang CL, Chen HD, Chen J, Luo Y, Guo H, Jiang RD, Liu MQ, Chen Y, Shen XR, Wang X, Zheng XS, Zhao K, Chen QJ, Deng F, Liu LL, Yan B, Zhan FX, Wang YY, Xiao GF, Shi ZL. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579(7798):270–3.

4. Guillon P, Clement M, Sebille V, Rivain JG, Chou CF, Ruvoen-Clouet N, Le Pendu J. Inhibition of the interaction between the SARS-CoV spike protein and its cellular receptor by anti-histo-blood group antibodies. Glycobiology. 2008;18(12):1085–93.

5. Yan R, Zhang Y, Li Y, Xia L, Guo Y, Zhou Q. Structural basis for the recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2. Science. 2020; 367(6485):1444–8.

6. Meyer B, Drosten C, Muller MA. Serological assays for emerging coronaviruses: challenges and pitfalls. Virus Res. 2014;194:175–83.

7. WHO. Update 49 - SARS case fatality ratio, incubation period. . Accessed 29 March 2020.

8. WHO. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). . Accessed 29 March 2020.

9. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To K.K, Chu H, Yang J, Xing F, Liu J, Yip CC, Poon RW, Tsoi HW, Lo SK, Chan KH, Poon VK, Chan WM, Ip JD, Cai JP, Cheng VC, Chen H, Hui CK, Yuen KY. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):514–23.

10. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P, Zhan F, Ma X, Wang D, Xu W, Wu G, Gao GF, Tan W. China Novel Coronavirus I. and Research T. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727–33.

11. Wu JT, Leung K, Bushman M, Kishore N, Niehus R, de Salazar PM, Cowling BJ, Lipsitch M, Leung GM. Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan. China Nature Medicine. 2020;26:506–10.

12. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020.

13. Wang SF, Chen KH, Chen M, Li WY, Chen YJ, Tsao CH, Yen MY, Huang JC, Chen YM. Human-leukocyte antigen class I Cw 1502 and class II DR 0301 genotypes are associated with resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection. Viral Immunol. 2011;24(5):421–6.

14. Keicho N, Itoyama S, Kashiwase K, Phi NC, Long HT, Ha LD, Ban VV, Hoa BK, Hang NT, Hijikata M, Sakurada S, Satake M, Tokunaga K, Sasazuki T, Quy T. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe acute respiratory syndrome in the Vietnamese population. Hum Immunol. 2009; 70(7):527–31.

15. Hajeer AH, Balkhy H, Johani S, Yousef MZ, Arabi Y. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection. Ann Thoracic Med. 2016;11(3):211–3.

16. Ito T, Wang YH, Liu YJ. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors/type I interferon-producing cells sense viral infection by toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005;26(3):221–9.

17. Akira S, Hemmi H. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by TLR family. Immunol Lett. 2003;85(2):85–95.

18. Huang LR, Chiu CM, Yeh SH, Huang WH, Hsueh PR, Yang WZ, Yang JY, Su IJ, Chang SC, Chen PJ. Evaluation of antibody responses against SARS coronaviral nucleocapsid or spike proteins by immunoblotting or ELISA. J Med Virol. 2004;73(3):338–46.

19. Murphy BR, Whitehead SS. Immune response to dengue virus and prospects for a vaccine. Annu Rev Immunol. 2011;29:587–619.

20. Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19. J Clin Invest. 2020;30(4):1545–8.

21. Wan Y, Shang J, Sun S, Tai W, Chen J, Geng Q, He L, Chen Y, Wu J, Shi Z, Zhou Y, Du L, Li F. Molecular Mechanism for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Coronavirus Entry. J Virol. 2020;94:5.

22. Halstead SB. Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology. Science. 1988;239(4839):476–81.

23. Mair-Jenkins J, Saavedra-Campos M, Baillie JK, Cleary P, Khaw FM, Lim WS, Makki S, Rooney KD, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Beck CR, Convalescent Plasma Study G. The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. J Infect Dis. 2015;211(1):80–90.

24. Xinhua. China puts 245 COVID-19 patients on convalescent plasma therapy. . Accessed 29 March 2020.

25. McFadden G, Mohamed MR, Rahman MM, Bartee E. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9(9):645–55.

26. Drosten C, Gunther S, Preiser W, van der Werf S, Brodt HR, Becker S, Rabenau H, Panning M, Kolesnikova L, Fouchier RA, Berger A, Burguiere AM, Cinatl J, Eickmann M, Escriou N, Grywna K, Kramme S, Manuguerra JC, Muller S, Rickerts V, Sturmer M, Vieth S, Klenk HD, Osterhaus AD, Schmitz H, Doerr HW. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1967–76.

27. Kuiken T, Fouchier RA, Schutten M, Rimmelzwaan GF, van Amerongen G, van Riel D, Laman JD, de Jong T, van Doornum G, Lim W, Ling AE, Chan PK, Tam JS, Zambon MC, Gopal R, Drosten C, van der Werf S, Escriou N, Manuguerra JC, Stohr K, Peiris JS, Osterhaus AD. Newly discovered coronavirus as the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2003;362(9380):263–70.
28. Peiris JS, Lai ST, Poon LL, Guan Y, Yam LY, Lim W, Nicholls J, Yee WK, Yan WW, Cheung MT, Cheng VC, Chan KH, Tsang DN, Yung RW, Ng TK, Yuen KY, group S.s. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2003;361(9366):1319–25.

29. Cheung CY, Poon LL, Ng IH, Luk W, Sia SF, Wu MH, Chan KH, Yuen KY, Gordon S, Guan Y, Peiris JS. Cytokine responses in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected macrophages in vitro: possible relevance to pathogenesis. J Virol. 2005;79(12):7819–26.

30. Law HK, Cheung CY, Ng HY, Sia SF, Chan YO, Luk W, Nicholls JM, Peiris JS, Lau YL. Chemokine up-regulation in SARS-coronavirus-infected, monocytederived human dendritic cells. Blood. 2005;106(7):2366–74.

31. Ziegler T, Matikainen S, Ronkko E, Osterlund P, Sillanpaa M, Siren J, Fagerlund R, Immonen M, Melen K, Julkunen I. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus fails to activate cytokine-mediated innate immune responses in cultured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Virol. 2005; 79(21):13800–5.

32. Ng DL, Al Hosani F, Keating MK, Gerber SI, Jones TL, Metcalfe MG, Tong S, Tao Y, Alami NN, Haynes LM, Mutei MA, Abdel-Wareth L, Uyeki TM, Swerdlow DL, Barakat M, Zaki SR. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings of a Fatal Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the United Arab Emirates, April 2014. Am J Pathol. 2016;186(3):652–8

33. Wong CK, Lam CW, Wu AK, Ip WK, Lee NL, Chan IH, Lit LC, Hui DS, Chan MH, Chung SS, Sung JJ. Plasma inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;136(1):95–103.

34. Kim ES, Choe PG, Park WB, Oh HS, Kim EJ, Nam EY, Na SH, Kim M, Song KH, Bang JH, Park SW, Kim HB, Kim NJ, Oh MD. Clinical progression and cytokine profiles of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. J Korean Med Sci. 2016;31(11):1717–25.

35. Min CK, Cheon S, Ha NY, Sohn KM, Kim Y, Aigerim A, Shin HM, Choi JY, Inn KS, Kim JH, Moon JY, Choi MS, Cho NH, Kim YS. Comparative and kinetic analysis of viral shedding and immunological responses in MERS patients representing a broad spectrum of disease severity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25359.

36. Yao XH, Li TY, He ZC, Ping YF, Liu HW, Yu SC, Mou HM, Wang LH, Zhang HR, Fu WJ, Luo T, Liu F, Chen C, Xiao HL, Guo HT, Lin S, Xiang DF, Shi Y, Li QR, Huang X, Cui Y, Li XZ, Tang W, Pan PF, Huang XQ, Ding YQ, Bian XW. A pathological report of three COVID-19 cases by minimally invasive autopsies. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2020;49(0):E009.

37. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X, Cheng Z, Yu T, Xia J, Wei Y, Wu W, Xie X, Yin W, Li H, Liu M, Xiao Y, Gao H, Guo L, Xie J, Wang G, Jiang R, Gao Z, Jin Q, Wang J, Cao B. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan. China Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497–506.
23 Views | 26 Downloads
How to Cite
Acharya, P., Panda, P., Kiran, D., & Sahu, A. (2020). A review articles of Clinical outcomes, and the origin, transmission, Immunologic aspects of characteristics and public health response to novel corona virus (COVID19). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 8(5), 129-137. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.793