Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:47:13 +0530 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 How is the SelfCare Management of Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus ?- Characteristics and Knowledge https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1171 <p>Background: Diabetes mellitus is a long-term disease characterized by increased blood sugar levels. The number of people with diabetes mellitus in Indonesia continues to increase from year to year. Diabetes control can be done with self care management which can be influenced by the characteristics of diabetics, knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Objective: To find out about the relationship between characteristics and knowledge with self care management in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Research Methods: Quantitative research with analytical descriptive type and using a cross sectional approach. The population of this study was all patients with type II diabetes mellitus in the Kemyoran District Health Center aged 45 years and over with a sample of 93 respondents and using purposive sampling technique. The instrument used was a questionnaire and analyzed using the Chi-Square test. Results: In this study, the results of the Chi-Square test showed that the variables of age (p=0.013), gender (p=0.764), education (p=0.003), duration of diabetes mellitus (p=0.012) and knowledge (p= 0.005 Conclusion: there is a relationship between age, education, duration of diabetes mellitus and knowledge with self care management of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pramita Iriana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1171 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 10:49:26 +0530 Mother's Self-Efficacy in Caring for Children with Cancer https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1172 <p>Cancer is the main cause of death in children in Indonesia. Childhood cancer is cancer that attacks children under 18 years old, including children who are still in the womb. Mothers play a major role in the process of child development. This study aims to identify the mother's self-efficacy in the care of children with cancer. This study uses a quantitative descriptive design. Maternal self-efficacy data was collected using a mother's self-efficacy questionnaire in carrying out treatment for cancer children modified from Bandura's Theory. The questionnaire used a Likert scale and data collection was carried out from February to July 2022 with 118 respondents who were mothers of children with cancer. The results show that mothers who have high self-efficacy will have high ability or confidence in caring for children with cancer, so they can accompany children in the process of child care, treatment, and healing. The mother's role is very important in determining the success rate of the treatment process and the survival of children with cancer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fenti Hasnani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1172 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 11:01:38 +0530 Family Support with Adolescent Smoking Behavior in High School https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1173 <p>Adolescents are residents with an age range of 10-18 years. At this stage of adolescence, adolescents are still looking for their identity so they need guidance and support from their families. The family support provided can influence the behavior of adolescents and shape adolescents for the better. In adolescents, health problems often occur, one of which is smoking so that the number of adolescents who smoke in Indonesia has increased from 2013 with a prevalence of 7.20% to 9.10% in 2018. Meanwhile, the prevalence in DKI Jakarta Province is adolescents aged 10-18 years by 4.51%. Therefore, it is important to know whether or not there is a relationship between family support and smoking behavior. This study used a cross sectional design with a sample of 116 adolescents. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The results of this study there is no relationship between family support and smoking behavior in adolescents at senior high schools in DKI Jakarta province with value = 0.267, value = 0.05 (¤ü&gt; ).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Wahyu Widagdo, Pralamphita Afifah Basuki ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1173 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:15:45 +0530 Dental Health Education: Chewing Gum Containing Xylitol in Junior High School Students https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1174 <p>Background: The high number of adolescent complaints related to dental and oral problems is related to the level of knowledge of adolescents in maintaining dental and oral health. Chewing xylitol gum is an alternative that has been proven to be quite effective in cleaning teeth from debris and plaque. Objective: This study aims to analyze the knowledge of students of junior high school PGRI 10 South Jakarta before and after being given education about chewing gum containing xylitol. Methods: This type of research is a quasi-experimental. The sample in this study amounted to 62 students, conducted in April 2022. Data collection by distributing pre-test and post-test questionnaires to measure knowledge before and after being given education about chewing gum containing xylitol. Data analysis using paired sample test. Results: Before the education was conducted, there were 9 students in the good knowledge category with a percentage of 14.5%, in the sufficient knowledge category there were 31 students with a 50.0% percentage, in the poor knowledge category there were 22 students with a 35.5% percentage. After education, there were 61 students in the good knowledge category with a percentage of 98.4%, in the sufficient knowledge category there was 1 student with a 1.6% percentage, in the poor knowledge category there were no students with a 0% percentage. The comparison of the average pre-test score is 6.05 while the total post-test average score is 9.40 with a p-value of 0.001. Conclusion: Education about chewing gum containing xylitol is effective in increasing the dental health knowledge of junior high school students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Siti Nurbayani Tauchid, Aulia Nabila, Tedi Purnama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1174 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:16:18 +0530 Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Pork DNA in Unauthorized Jamu and Fish Oil Capsule Shells https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1175 <p>Capsules for pharmaceutical dosage forms are generally manufactured from beef gelatin. However, several reports claimed the alleged misuse of pork gelatin was improperly used in producing illegitimate capsules for the Muslim community. This study aimed to analyze pork DNA in unregistered jamu and fish oil capsules using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The sample was isolated to obtain pure pork DNA and amplified using a specific primer to generate millions of DNA using the multi-step PCR method. The PCR product was analyzed to identify the pork DNA's existence via gel electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose. The analysis showed that several samples were positive at 132 bp compared to reference pork DNA. The result of this study revealed that unregistered products should be evaluated and followed up on to prevent product abuse.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ridho Asra, Fitra Fauziah, Gemmy Sarina, Rahmi Zhavira Hasan, Ghina Muharrani Yahya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1175 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:17:26 +0530 ┬ČAntidiabetic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Tetracera scandens (L.) Merr. Stems https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1176 <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which had a&nbsp; high prevalence in Indonesia. Traditional medicinal plants have been developed to treat diabetes mellitus. One of them is <em>Tetracera scandens </em>(L.) Merr.This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the ethanol extract of <em>T.scandens </em>stems on blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice induced by alloxan. Animals were grouped into five groups: normal group, negative control, and extract doses of 175, 350, and 700 mg/kg BW. Animals were induced with an alloxandose of 175 mg/kg BW. The extract was given orally for 21 days.The results showed that the administration of ethanol extract of<em>T.scandens </em>stemscould significantly reduce blood glucose levels, increase insulin levels and reduce insulin resistance (p&lt;0.05).It can be concluded that the ethanol extract of <em>T.scandens </em>potential to develop as herbal medicine in diabetes mellitus therapy. Further study is needed toconfirmthe antidiabetic activity of<em> T.scandens.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fitra Fauziah, Widya Kardela, Dwi Julda Tinsia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1176 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:18:26 +0530 Infertility Patients Related To Menarche Age and Nutritional Status at Halim Fertility Center Clinic Medan https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1179 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aims to determine the relationship between Menarche Age and Nutritional Status on infertility patients. Infertility is one of the reproductive health problems that have not been completely resolved. Infertility is defined as the inability to have children or a condition where a married couple has not been able to have children even though they have had sexual intercourse 2-3 times a week for a period of 1 year without using contraception. Infertility affects the psychology of married couples so that it triggers marital problems such as divorce, and relationships that are not harmonious.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The research method used is quantitative analytic with a case control approach. Case control approach is a research that studies the influence of risk factors (independent) and effect factors (dependent), at the same time. The study was conducted at the Halim Fertility Center/HFC Clinic with the study population consisting of Couples of Childbearing Age (EFA) with the number of samples (Cases and Controls) taken proportionally 1:1, 40 Cases: 40 Controls, so the total sample size was 80 samples.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of the bivariate analysis between the age of menarche and the incidence of infertility, statistically the Odds Ratio value was 3.85 (95% CI; 1.38-10.764), meaning that respondents with abnormal menarche age had a 3.85 times greater risk of experiencing infertility compared to respondents who have normal age of menarche. With p-value = 0.016, it means that there is a significant relationship between the age of menarche and the incidence of infertility. It can be concluded that the abnormal age of menarche is a risk factor for infertility. The results of the bivariate analysis between nutritional status and the incidence of infertility statistically obtained the Odds Ratio value of 4.846 (95% CI; 1.43-16.42) meaning that respondents who were obese had a 4.846 times greater risk of experiencing infertility compared to those who were not obese. . With p-value = 0.016, it means that there is a significant relationship between nutritional status and the incidence of infertility. It can be concluded that nutritional status is a risk factor for infertility. The results of the independent variables (age of menarche, and nutritional status) met the candidate requirements for inclusion in the multivariate test.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The factors of age at menarche and nutritional status have a risk for the incidence of infertility in couples of childbearing age at the Halim Fertility Center Clinic in Medan. It can be concluded that the age of menarche and nutritional status have a significant relationship with the incidence of infertility.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mastaida Tambun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1179 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:20:19 +0530 Formulation of Roselle Flower Extract Gel (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) as a Disclosing Solution https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1180 <p>Background: Plaque is a soft deposit attached to the teeth consisting of various types of microorganisms from saliva and food waste. Plaque cannot be seen because it is transparent, like the color of translucent white glass. The way to see plaque is to use a contrast material such as a dye (red/purple) in the form of a liquid or gel called a disclosing solution. It is usually found in gel and liquid form. But in use in humans there are many shortcomings because they are expensive, quite expensive and often contain harmful chemicals. One of the herbal plants that can be used as an alternative material as a disclosing solution is Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) which can be used for its properties in the field of Prevention of Dental and Oral Diseases and has antibacterial and remineralizing effects. Methods: This research is an experimental study on the development of Rosella Flower Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in the form of a gel in disclosing solution. The research was carried out from June to August 2021 at the Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy and Food Analysis, Health Polytechnic of Jakarta II and Dental Health Laboratory, Health Polytechnic of Jakarta I. Disclosing solution prepared from dried Rosella Flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was obtained as much as 1000 grams. from the Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Plants, Bogor. Hedonic testing was carried out on 34 students of the Department of Dental Health, Health Polytechnic of Jakarta I. Results: The disclosing solution preparation in the form of a gel from rosella flower extract had good organoleptic test results. The expected red color corresponding to the color of the disclosing solution is at a concentration of 70%. The average pH of the disclosing solution in the form of a gel was 4.95. The average dispersion of the gel preparation is 5.7. 5. The average adhesion of gel preparations at all concentrations is 1.44 seconds. The hedonic test was obtained that most of the respondents had a neutral opinion on all disclosing gel preparations. Conclusion: The preparation of Roselle Flower Extract Gel (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) can be used as an alternative disclosing solution</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vitri Nurilawaty, Dwi Priharti, Ai Emalia Sukmawati, Bimo Gigih Sasongko, Silvester Maximus Tulandi, Tedi Purnama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1180 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:25:26 +0530 Molecular Docking Study of Novel Nitrofuran Derivatives As Urinary Tract Anti Infectives https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1178 <p>Modern drug design commonly uses molecular docking to understand drug-receptor interaction. For docking tests against 1YLU, an <em>E. coli</em> nitro-reductase, substituted furan derivatives were used in the current work. The study's primary goal is to dock the chosen nitrofuran derivatives onto the protein and compare the results to those of nitrofurantoin as a standard drug. PyRx and the discovery studio visualizer (DSV) application were used to carry out the molecular docking analysis, and <em>E. coli</em> nitro-reductase (1YLU) was retrieved from the protein data bank (PDB) website. All seven of the nitrofuran compounds docking scores were discovered to range between -5.9 and -8.8 Kcal/mol. Compound 2a received the highest binding score, with a score of -8.80 Kcal/mol.At the protein active site, compound 2a interacts with amino acids such as glutamic acid (GLU 165), arginine (ARG 10 &amp; 207), serine (SER 39 &amp; 12), glutamine (GLN 142), and lysine (LYS205).Numerous nitrofuran substituted compounds have been identified for the activity and the nitrofuran derivatives have been discovered to exhibit urinary tract anti-infective activities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shivanand Kolageri, Siddaling Kamble, Viswanath S, Meganathan G, Khursid Alom, Rajasekaran S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1178 Fri, 14 Oct 2022 22:23:46 +0530 Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Oral Printed Films of Ketorolac Tromethamine https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1170 <p>For the analysis of Ketorolac Tromethamine in Oral film formulation, a simple, precise, and accurate method was developed and validated. On a Kromosil C18 column (150 cm 4.6 mm 5), an isocratic HPLC analysis was performed. The chemical was isolated using a solution of&nbsp;A 55:45 V/V methanol and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with a pH of 3.0 was used.&nbsp;Adjusted with 1.5 mL/min flow of O-phosphoric acid as the mobile phase UV detection was carried out.&nbsp;Photo diode array detection was used at 314 nm. The retention time was discovered to be 6.08 minutes.&nbsp;The system suitability criteria, such as theoretical plate count, tailing, and percentage, should be kept to a minimum. The RSD between six standard injections was within the acceptable range. The procedure was tested and found to be valid.&nbsp;According to the ICH guidelines over the concentration range of 50-150 gm/L, calibrations were linear. The correlation coefficient (r) of 0.999 indicates this. The method's resilience was tested by systematically changing the chromatographic settings. The approach described may be used for routine quantitative analysis.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Priya Dule, Vaishali Kilor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1170 Sun, 23 Oct 2022 13:11:27 +0530 CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON MANAGEMENT OF RAKTARSHA https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1177 <p>In the present era <em>Arsha </em>has become most common and distressing disease due to Sedentary life style and irregular habits. <em>Raktarshas </em>is one of the <em>bheda </em>of <em>ardraars has </em>which is <em>pittaraktanubandhi</em>. The formation of <em>mamsakura </em>occurs which looks like <em>vatankurasadrasha (Gunjaphalavata ,Vidrumasadrasha). Raktasrava, Shoola,Vibandha, Kandu </em>and&nbsp; <em>Daha </em>are the characteristic features of <em>Raktars has</em>. Inmodern science <em>Raktarshas</em>iscor related with Bleeding Hemorrhoids. Chronic constipation is almost common cause of bleeding Hemorrhoids. Usually due to chronic constipation more pressure exerted on Hemorrhoidal veins as they have not contained any extra bony support hence it causes friction in the region which leads to varicosity of Hemorrhoidal veins which aa in due to chronic constipation yet strained and burst resulting in bleeding. Ayurvedic physician are treating this disease successfully with indigenous formulations and surgery.</p> Shivaraj A Gaudar, Santosh Kumar J, Elizabeth John P ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1177 Wed, 26 Oct 2022 23:01:12 +0530