Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Fri, 15 Apr 2022 20:09:56 +0530 OJS 60 Determination of Iron Content, Potassium, Calcium, and Sodium In Chinese Date Fruit (Ziziphus Jujuba Miller.) Fresh and Boiled In Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometry <p>Chinese dates fruit are generally used by the people of Indonesia as a fruit that has a fairly good nutritional value, namely every 100 g of Chinese dates fruit contain 79 kcal of energy, 1.2 g protein, 20.23 g carbohydrates, 250 mg potassium, 21 mg calcium, 23 mg. phosphorus, 0.5 mg iron, 3 mg sodium, 10 mg magnesium, 0.1 vitamin B6 and 69 mg vitamin C. Chinese dates fruit are foods that are rich in fiber, so they can lower blood cholesterol and cure chronic constipation. In addition, Chinese dates fruit are foods with good sources of potassium. Adequate potassium intake can lower blood pressure so that it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. High iron content can also prevent anemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the content of iron, potassium, calcium, and sodium in fresh and boiled Chinese dates fruit fruit, and to determine the percentage decrease in levels after boiling.</p> <p>The method used in this study included dry digestion, then quantitative analysis of iron, potassium, calcium, and sodium was carried out using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method, namely iron at a wavelength of 248.3 nm, for potassium 766.5 nm, to calcium 422.7 nm, and sodium 589.0 nm.</p> <p>The results showed that the iron content in fresh Chinese dates fruit fruit was (0.6687 ± 0.0084) mg/100 g and boiled (0.3285 ± 0.0127) mg/100 g. Potassium levels in fresh Chinese dates fruit fruit (657.9024 ± 0.4713) mg/100 g and boiled (158.6504 ± 0.2510) mg/100 g. Calcium levels in fresh Chinese dates fruit fruit were (47.3501 ± 1.1630) mg/100 g and boiled (26.3968 ± 0.5922) mg/100 g, and sodium levels in fresh Chinese dates fruit fruit (16.1272 ± 0.1543) mg/100 g and boiled at (13.4048 ± 0.1973) mg/100 g. The percentage decrease in mineral content in Chinese dates fruit fruit after boiling, for iron was 50.87%, potassium 75.88%, calcium 44.25%; and 16.88% sodium.</p> <p>Statistically different test of the average mineral levels of iron, potassium, calcium, and sodium using the T distribution, it can be concluded that fresh Chinese dates fruit fruit contain higher levels of iron, potassium, calcium, and sodium minerals than boiled Chinese dates fruit.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Amin Nasution, Masfria M, Effendy De Lux Putra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Apr 2022 12:39:52 +0530 The Effect of Pop Up Book Media on Increasing Dental Health Knowledge in Elementary School Children <p>Background: Children are a very large group of people and have a high prevalence of dental caries. This is related to the correct tooth brushing behavior data which is 2.8% every day. Dental health promotion is an effort to increase children's knowledge whose success cannot be separated from the method of education and the role of the media. Pop-up book is one of the three-dimensional visual media that can be an alternative as a learning medium. Objective: This study aims to analyze the effect of pop up book media on increasing dental health knowledge of elementary school children. Methods: Pre-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The sampling technique was purposive sampling as many as 64 children, consisting of 32 children in the intervention group and 32 children in the control group. The study was conducted at SDN 03 Cilandak Timur, South Jakarta from September to October 2021. The variable influence on the intervention group was pop up book media and the control group was flipchart media while the affected variable was dental health knowledge. The research instrument used a questionnaire about dental health. Data analysis used the SPSS program with the Paired Sample Test to compare the knowledge scores before and after the intervention and the independent t-test to compare the difference in knowledge scores between the intervention group and the control group. Results: The results of the Paired Sample Test on knowledge in the intervention group obtained p = 0.000 and in the control group was p = 0.182. The results of the independent t-test were obtained p = 0.000. Conclusion: Pop up book media is effective in increasing the dental health knowledge of elementary school children.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pudentiana Rr Re, Siti Nurbayani T, Tugiman Atmasumarta, Tri Riana Lestari, Tedi Purnama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:08:32 +0530 Starfruit extract (Averrhoa bilimbi) as an alternative ingredient in the treatment of aphthous stomatitis and gingivitis <p>Background: Stomatitis is a lesion of the oral mucosa, inner cheek, inner lip, tongue, gums, and palate. Although it is not dangerous, canker sores are very annoying. Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingival area and is the most common disease in the community. The content of starfruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) includes saponins, tannins, glucosides, and calcium, one of the best known as thrush drugs. In addition, the use of herbal plants such as star fruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) to reduce the risk of caries because this plant has antibacterial ability. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of starfruit on the healing of aphthous stomatitis and gingivitis. Methods: the type of research used is quasi-experimental, with a pre and post-test design. The sampling technique used purposive sampling. The data collection instrument used to measure the diameter of stomatitis was using a caliper and measuring gingivitis using the WHO standard measuring instrument, namely the gingival index. Analysis of the data used was a paired sample test to compare stomatitis and gingivitis before and after the intervention. Result: the application of starfruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) showed p= 0.000 and the gingival index showed p=0.016, meaning that starfruit extract (Averrhoa bilimbi) was effective in treatment of aphthous stomatitis and gingivitis. Conclusion: starfruit extract (Averrhoa bilimbi) is effective as an alternative ingredient in the treatment of aphthous stomatitis and gingivitis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eliati Sri Suharja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:09:38 +0530 Antagonistic Activity of Agaricuscampestris mushroom Extracts Against some Human Pathogenic Bacterial Species <p>The present study focused on the evaluation of <em>Agaricuscampestris mushroom extracts </em>activity against four clinical isolates <em>Escherichia coli;</em> <em>Pseudomonas aerginosa</em>; <em>Staphylococcus haemolyticus </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. <em>Agaricuscampestris mushroom extracts</em> varied in their antimicrobial activity. The intensity of the antimicrobial effect is dependent upon the solvent , concentration of the mushroom extract and the organism being tested against .Therefore, The hot water and ethanolic extract 96%showed maximum inhibition at high concentrations specially at&nbsp; 500 mg/ml&nbsp; concentration( 17, 16, 19, 16&nbsp; ) mm and ( 20,21,19,20) against <em>E. coli , Pseudomonas aerginosa</em>; <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus haemolyticus </em>respectively compared with methanolic extract <em>.</em> The ethyl acetate&nbsp; extract of the&nbsp;&nbsp; powder mushroom&nbsp; of <em>Agaricuscampestris </em>was analyzed to 9 chemical compounds belonged to fatty acids and their derivatives and included :-Nonadecane, Pentacosane, Octadecane, Heptadecane, Heneicosane, Hexadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl, Butanoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenyl ester, Phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester ,, Octanoic acid, heptadecyl ester.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shatha Ali Shafiq, Rasha Salam Sahib ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:10:34 +0530 Phytochemical Screening of alcoholic extract of Thuja Occidentalis Leaves for Formulation and Evaluation of Wound Healing Ointment <p>Herbal cosmetics are concoctions that are used to beautify and improve the look of humans. The goal of this study was to create and assess a herbal ointment including leaves extract made with alcohol for wound healing. Recent studies in several regions of the world have revealed that t. occidentalis and its active component thujone have a high potential for treating a variety of health problems. T. occidentalis preparations can effectively combat microbial/worm infection. It has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to these effects, it has insecticidal, molluscicidal, and nematocidal efficacy against certain pests.During the research period, the formulated ointment demonstrated good consistency and spreadability, homogeneity, pH, non-greasy, and no signs of phase separation. Stability characteristics such as visual appearance, nature, viscosity, and aroma of the prepared ointment revealed no significant modification over the research period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Keshav Bharti, Manmohan Sharma, Girish Kumar Vyas, Shailesh Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:11:51 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets Containing Sertraline Solid Dispersion Using Plantago Ovata <p>The aim of the present research is to formulate Sertraline Hydochloride solid dispersion (SRT-SD) fast disintegrating tablets. The speed of onset of action of antidepressant drug is clinically important for several reasons. Fast disintegrating tablets of SRT-SD was formulated by using natural superdisintegrant adopting direct compression method to minimize time of onset of action and also become economic. The study describes formulation of solid dispersion of SRT using HPMC E5 as a carrier and further converting SRT-SD into fast disintegrating tablets utilizing<em> Plantago ovata</em> mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. All tablets formulations were evaluated for various pre and post compression parameters. The F1 batch showed release kinetics closest to Serta<sup>® </sup>with maximum r<sup>2 </sup>(0.9991) value was considered to be the optimized batch and showed hardness of 3.10 kg/cm<sup>2</sup>, disintegration time of 28.00 second and dissolution of 95 % in 12 min. The stability study clearly indicate that optimized batch can increase the disintegrating and dissolution time of SRT and utilized as prominent alternative for the treatment of depression.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hrishikesh K. Khatal, Smita P. Borkar, Prakash D. Jadhav, Vishal D Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Apr 2022 23:17:27 +0530 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong><em>In Recent year's medication obstruction is a quickly developing issue over the whole world in the treatment of infectious diseases. The widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Anyway right now, nanotechnology research has been engaging more in restorative businesses with various advantages because of the way that surface area to volume proportion of Nanoparticles is quite large. In this exploration work, Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prepared by using a reducing agent like sodium borohydride and capping agent polyvinylpyrolidine.</em></p> <p><em>The AgNPs were set up by the chemical reduction method. Nanotechnology has its own importance it eventually reduce dose and also have a superior bioavailability than larger particles. The prepared AgNPs were subjected to characterization like particle size, X-Ray diffraction.&nbsp;In addition, the AgNPs drawing much interest in account of their powerful antibacterial movement. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs checked against the bacterial culture of Staphylococcus Aureus and E, coli. The zone of inhibition AgNPs was checked against both microorganisms. The results of this study demonstrate antibacterial activity of AgNPs against the bacterial culture of Staphylococcus Aureus and E, coli.</em></p> Nitin Nilkanth Padole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:18:27 +0530 Phyto Analysis, Formulation, and Evaluation of Herbal Lotion Produced From Allium Sativum and Phyllanthus Emblica Alcoholic Extracts <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Herbal cosmetics are concoctions that are used to beautify and improve the look of humans. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a herbal antibacterial lotion formulation that included an alcohol-based fruit extract. Recent research in numerous parts of the world has found that the active components of Allium sativum and Phyllanthus emblica fruits have a great potential for treating a wide range of health conditions. Microbial/worm infection can be efficiently combated using Allium sativum and Phyllanthus emblica preparations. It's anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial. The prepared lotion displayed good consistency and spreadability, homogeneity, pH, non-greasy, and no symptoms of phase separation during the research period. Stability properties of the produced lotion, such as visual appearance, nature, viscosity, and scent, did not change significantly during the study time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mukut Raj, Girish Kumar Vyas, Shailesh Sharma, Anil Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 00:33:22 +0530 Process Validation of Highly Potent Antidiabetic Tablets of Voglibose 0.2 Mg <p>Diabetes mellitus is chronic disorder which affecting number of persons worldwide, alpha glycoside inhibitors like Voglibose is a highly potent and tolerant alpha glycoside inhibitor as compare to other diabetic drugs, the main objective of this process validation is to provide documentary evidence that the manufacturing process of <strong>Voglibose Tablet IP 0.2 mg </strong>will consistently and reproducibly produce a product, which meets predetermined specifications and quality attributes. The critical process parameter was identified with the help of process capability and evaluated by challenging as per in-house specification.&nbsp; Three&nbsp;&nbsp; initial&nbsp;&nbsp; process validation batches (T17L004, T18L003, T19A013) of same size, method, equipment &amp; validation criteria were taken.&nbsp; As per the process validation protocol critical parameter identified like sifting, dry mixing, wet granulation, drying, sifting and milling, blending &amp;lubrication, compression at different stages and blister packing and evaluated as per process validation protocol. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on evaluation of manufacturing process and analytical data it is concluded that the employed manufacturing process for <strong>Voglibose </strong><strong>Tablet IP 0.2 mg </strong>shall be consistently&amp; reproducibly produce a product which meeting its predetermined specification and quality attributes, hence it is considered to be validated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lokesh K. Tijare, Lokesh T. Deshmukh, Abhinay A. Mohod, Vivek M. Bhandakkar, Santosh Hore, Nitin N. Padole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Apr 2022 12:39:14 +0530 Pharmacognostical Standardization, Phytochemical Screening and Antiulcer Activity of Terminalia bellerica <p>Context: Terminalia chebula&nbsp;Retz. (Combretaceae) is a medium-sized tree that grows in the wild throughout India.&nbsp;T. chebula&nbsp;has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and homoeopathic medicine. The fruit has been used as a traditional medicine for a household remedy against various human ailments. Traditionally&nbsp;T. chebula&nbsp;is used to cure chronic ulcer, gastritis, and stomach cancers.</p> <p>Objective:&nbsp;The present study is to evaluate the antiulcer effect of hydroalcoholic extract of&nbsp;Terminalia chebula&nbsp;fruit.</p> <p>Materials and methods:&nbsp;In the pharmacognostical, phytochemical and biological evaluation many chemicals, glassware and instruments were used. Different grades of chemicals were used as per the requirement like laboratory reagent (LR), analytical reagents (AR) and HPLC.</p> <p>Conclusion : The present study has been done to evaluate the antiulcer effect of METB on indomethacin induced ulcer models at various doses. The results obtained from the present study have shown that METB possesses antiulcer effect on indomethacin induced ulcers.&nbsp; Pre-treatment with METB particularly at a dose of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200 mg/kg decreases ulcer index, total acidity, total volume of acid secretion and increase in pH when compared with control.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Srishti Upadhyay, Jagdish Nagar, Mohammad Mukim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:03:47 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of meclofenamate fast dissolving tablet. <p>The study of this work was to use a swellable polymer chosen among superdisintegrants, for improving the dissolution rate of a sparingly soluble drug, loaded on its surface. Meclofenamate, which has very low water solubility, was chosen as a model drug, while cross linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Ac-Di-Sol) was chosen as the swellable polymer. The Drug Polymer systems were prepared using direct compression method.The results of the dissolution tests showed that the dissolution rate of Meclofenamate from the systems prepared increase, particularly in the case of the preparation composed of Ac-Di-Sol plus surfactant agents. Attempts were made to increase the rate of drug release (disintegration) to enhance the in vitro dissolution of the poorly soluble drug by using extra, intra and partly intra and extra granular method of addition of sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and to develop a stable immediate release formulation by direct compression method.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hemraj R, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 11 May 2022 10:37:16 +0530 Application of Yoga Gymnasticson Clients with Hypertension as an Effort to Lower Blood Pressure: A Case Study <p>Background: hypertension is an increase in abnormal arterial blood pressure, namely blood pressure more than 140/90mmHg. Hypertension, a silent killer or "silent killer". That is a familiar nickname for hypertension or high blood pressure. Every year there is an increase in hypertension sufferers from year to year, this is due in large part to the lack of knowledge of how to treat and causes of hypertension, Broadly speaking, therapy or management of hypertension can be done in two ways, namely pharmacological management (with drugs) and non-pharmacological (without drugs), one of which is the application of yoga exercises to lower blood pressure. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of the application of yoga exercises to clients with hypertension to reduce blood pressure. Methods: This research design uses a case study method that implements the application of yoga exercises to clients with hypertension to reduce blood pressure. Results: Researchers found that there was an effect of the application of yoga exercises on hypertensive clients on lowering blood pressure. Conclusion: After applying Yoga Gymnastics to patients with hypertension in the work area of ​​the Tanjung Agung Health Center, the researchers concluded that the Effective Yoga Exercise helps reduce blood pressure. Suggestion: Further researchers are advised to increase the number of respondents so that they can reduce blood pressure more from this study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saprianto S, Meti Eka Putri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:31:22 +0530 Application of Family Nursing Care in Patients with Hypertension: A Case Study <p>Background: Hypertension contributes to nearly 9.4 million deaths from cardiovascular disease every year. It also increases the risk of coronary heart disease by as well as increases the risk of stroke. Hypertension can also cause economic losses, the incidence of chronic diseases will directly reduce the number of the workforce due to high mortality, work absenteeism, disability and early retirement. Nurses have an important role to help families in the management of hypertension. Nurses have a role in changing behavior as an effort to reduce the risk of rising blood pressure and one of the treatments is the application of family nursing care. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of implementing family nursing care for hypertensive patients as an effort to reduce blood pressure. Research Methods: This research design uses a case study method that implements the application of family nursing care to hypertensive patients as an effort to reduce blood pressure. This study was conducted on hypertensive patients in the family of Mr.G Rt 02/03 Parigi Village, Cikande District, Serang Regency. Results: The application of family nursing care for 4 visits can increase patient knowledge about hypertension, reduce acute pain with relaxation techniques, overcome sleep patterns by doing breathing techniques before going to bed and reduce blood pressure from 140/95mmhg to 130/90mmhg. Conclusion: Family nursing care is effective in lowering blood pressure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Reni Chairani, Alif Satriadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 00:50:02 +0530 Review on the Different Approach between Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease <p>Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease are disorders which are commonly affects the brain. However, Parkinson’s disease affects the speed of thinking and memory including cognitive functions, whereas Alzheimer’s affects memory and words. With this reviewed article, this information about twodisorders which are very seriously in modern disease will help you prepare for a healthy 100-year-old.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Cheolin Park, Do-Yeon Won, Jae-Eun Jung ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 00:58:46 +0530 An Updated Review On Analytical Methods For Estimation Of Azelnidipine And Telmisartan <p>High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a common condition that is characterized by having a higher amount of pressure in blood vessels than normal. Hypertension (HT) is a very common disorder, particularly past middle age. It is not a disease in itself, but is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. For improvement activity of hypertension, Azelnidipine and Telmisartan newer combination in market, which is effective in Hypertension. This combination was developed to improve medication for Stage II Hypertension. Azelnidipine is Ca<sup>2+ </sup>channel blocker and chemically 3-[1-(Benzyldrylazetidin-3-yl] 5-isopropyl- 2- amino 6 methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4- dihydropyridine-3, 5dicarboxylate.Telmisartan is AT1-receptor blocker and Chemically2-{4-[[4-methyl-6-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2yl)-2–propylbenzimidazol-1yl] methyl] biphenyl)-benzoic acid. It provides information about different analytical method development like UV spectrophotometry, HPTLC, HPLC, and LC-MS methods reported for Azelnidipine and Telmisartan for individual and other drug combination. All reported methods found to be simple, accurate, economic, precise and reproducible in nature. This Review focuses on recent development in analytical method development for Azelnidipine and Telmisartan, and there were two methods reported for this combination as per our knowledge.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. M. Eswarudu, P. Roja, P. Ravi Sankar, P. Srinivasa Babu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 19:51:23 +0530 THE A Comparative Review on Allium Sativum and Phyllanthus Emblica <p>Allium sativum and Phyllanthus emblica have the ability to treat a variety of disorders through diverse formulations. The goal of this comparative analysis is to assess the extractive properties of both plants in various solvents based on their polarity. I've noticed that ethanol has a high potential for extracting the API from the crude medicine, which may be emblica or sativum. As a result, additional assessment and research will be conducted with the consideration of plant potential and extractive production. This review article provides information about these plants, their common names, and their diverse activities in relation to various ailments.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mukut Raj, Girish Kumar Vyas, Shailesh Sharma, Hansraj Bishnoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 08:40:27 +0530 The Development of Forced Degradation and Stability Indicating Studies of Drugs- A Review <p>Force degradation study is an essential study that provides the knowledge &amp; judgement to develop a stability indicating analytical method. This study helps to establish the specification and shelf life of a drug substance or drug product. Force degradation study show the chemical behaviour of the molecule which in turn helps in the development of formulation and package. This helps to describe the analytical methods helpful for development of stability indicating method. In addition, the regulatory guidance is very general and does not explain about the performance of forced degradation studies. Thus, this review discusses the current trends in performance of forced degradation studies by providing a strategy for conducting studies on degradation mechanisms and also describes the analytical methods helpful for development of stability indicating method.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Akanksha Verma, Shivali Singla, Priyankul Palia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Apr 2022 14:54:57 +0530 A Review on Phytochemical Pharmacological and Biological Activities of Thuja Occidentalis <p>Thuja occidentalis plant of Cupressaceae family originated in Eastern North America and is now planted as an ornamental tree in Europe and Brazil, where it is known as the "tree of life" or "white cedar." It's often used to treat liver problems, enuresis, amenorrhea, bullous bronchitis, psoriasis, cystitis, uterine carcinomas, diarrhoea, and rheumatism in traditional medicine. Due to the presence of essential oil, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and proanthocyanins, the chemical ingredients of T. occidentalis have piqued researchers' curiosity for decades. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, gastrointestinal tract protective action, radioprotection, antipyretic, and lipid metabolism regulating activity are all examples of pharmacology. As a result, the current study is a compilation of all essential material for T. occidentalis, including phytochemical, biological and a detailed examination of their pharmacological properties.The current review represents a synthesis of all relevant information for Thuja occidentalis, including phytochemical, biologicaland a thorough analysis of their pharmacological activities, in order to promote all of the biological activities demonstrated thus far, rather than focusing on a single biological activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Keshav Bharti, Manmohan Sharma, Girish Kumar Vyas, Dr. Shailesh Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 17 Apr 2022 22:43:32 +0530 Consumer Perception Towards Online Pharmacy And Offline Pharmacy With Reference To Mumbai City <p>E-commerce investment in medical and pharmaceuticals is skyrocketing, which is assisting in the growth of either the online and offline supply of options for acquiring drugs to customers. This measure would ultimately assist the Indian drug industry in better meeting the demands of customers. The convenience given by e-medicines is allowing patients to shift from offline to online ordering modalities, particularly with the increased usage of the World Wide Web currently. Although a greater proportion of people, such as the elderly, disabled, and those living in remote areas, have begun to use this advanced practise on a regular basis, there remains a sizable segment of society that is still reliant on the traditional method of obtaining meds from drug stores and relies on it. Certain cases of fraudulent and inadequate information regarding pharmaceuticals and medicines being shown on these sites of "Pharmacies" and apps have been detected, making them unethical. Furthermore, it is clear that Internet prescription cannot replace the real physician's care of the patient, since patients are still at danger of significant medication interactions and adverse effects while using the online treatment approach.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Study was done to investigate consumer perceptions about online and offline pharmacies in Mumbai, India, and if there is any danger involved with purchasing drugs from all these sources.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology: </strong>The survey looked at people's attitudes about online and traditional pharmacies. Which of these do individuals in India tend to favour for their frequent pharmaceutical purchases? The investigation is conclusive in nature, and a casual research strategy was employed to assess people's behaviour and preferences regarding online and physical pharmacies. The research also included a qualitative component since the behaviour of buyers/consumers was examined. The descriptive component of the research is there just to analyse and comprehend the consumer's behaviour and the variables that lead to this choice.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rahul Baburao Ushir, Dr. P. Dolly Diana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Apr 2022 08:34:43 +0530 Stem Cell Therapy for Myocardial Infarction: A Mini-Review <p>Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can proliferate, regenerate, develop into differentiated cells, and produce a variety of tissues. Embryonic stem cells, adult or somatic stem cells, and pluripotent stem cells are the three types of stem cells. Another classification of stem cells is totipotent, multipotent, and unipotent cells. Stem cell treatment has the possibility of treating degenerative disorders, cancer, and the restoration of damaged tissues, all of which now have no or restricted medicinal alternatives. Myocardial infarction is a potentially fatal condition caused by the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes and a deterioration in the heart's blood-pumping capacity. Throughout the last two decades, stem cell-based treatments for myocardial infarction therapy have been researched with encouraging results. Traditional therapy for myocardial infarction slows disease development but has little effect on healing. Because of their ability to initiate de novo cardiogenesis, embryonic stem cells are thought to be a potential candidate for cardiac regeneration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Md Sadique Hussain, Swati Tyagi, Himanshi Khatri, Sandeep Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Apr 2022 10:10:21 +0530 Analysis of Herbal Drugs by HPTLC: A REVIEW <p>Densitometric evaluation through HPTLC is very useful method for standardization of medicinal plants and other natural products, especially those used in different system of medicine. It has been approved as an authenticated method of analysis in several pharmacopeias, including the USP and the IP. Result from a number of medicinal plants studied in the laboratory have shown that, TLC- densitometry is more advantageous strategy than HPLC or GLC. Improvement in resolution, HPTLC is valuable tool for the investigation of herbal products with respect to different aspects of their quality.&nbsp; sensitivity and reproducibility are the fundamental attributes. HPTLC plays an important role in the characterization of marker compounds for the development and standardization of herbal medicines. The HPTLC approach is particularly well suited to the examination of herbs and herbal preparations because it allows for easy comparison of samples using fingerprints and quantitative determination using scanning densitometry. Herbs and herbal mixtures are particularly challenging to standardise. Many of the current medications we use today for various ailments are based on plants and plant-based products. This review focused on the various HPTLC methods used to analyse herbal drugs. For each drug, extraction processes as well as the HPTLC analytical method have been optimised.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gunjal Sanket B, Dighe P. R ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 02 May 2022 22:44:59 +0530 Medicated Lozenges: A Review <p>A lozenge is a solid dose form of a medicine that is meant to dissolve in the mouth or throat. The creation of lozenges began in the 20th century and is continuing in use now. The advantages of lozenges include an increase in the duration of oral form retention in the oral cavity, which is beneficial. Bioavailability is improved. The difference lowers stomach distress and bypasses the first pass metabolism. Compressed lozenges , hard and soft lozenges are a form of lozenge that is available on the market.n this review there is a method of preparation of lozenges with materials that is required for lozenges are addressed. This review also include the research to date, classification, advantages, disadvantages, formulation evaluation, packaging, storage, uses and parameters of the study&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Onkar Gopale, Shraddha Jethawa, Suvarna Shelke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 07 May 2022 22:37:19 +0530 Impurity Profiling: A Review <p>Impurities are any substances, such as starting materials or intermediates, that coexist with the parent drug or arise from side reactions. Interest in impurities present in APIs continues to grow. Nowadays, not only purity profile but also impurity profile is mandated by various regulatory agencies.&nbsp; Impurity profiling is a generic name for a group of analytical working groups such as describing, quantifying and characterizing identified and unidentified impurities present in a new drug substance.&nbsp; Impurity profiling is a novel approach aimed at detecting, identifying, structuring and quantifying organic and inorganic impurities and residual solvents in pharmaceuticals.&nbsp; Various regulatory bodies, such as ICH, USFDA, UKMHRA, and India's CDSCO, focus on impurity profiling and have formulated guidelines for impurity management and restriction. Impurities are classified into different categories based on their origin, type of composition, and biological safety. The presence of these unwanted chemicals or substances may affect the safety and effectiveness of the final medicinal product. This review focuses on the sources of impurities, their classification, and various analytical methods for the identification and quantification of impurities. Terms such as residual solvent, by-product, transformation product, decomposition product, reaction product, and related products are often used to define impurities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhagwat Ashlesha B, Khedkar K. M ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 May 2022 08:42:11 +0530 Techniques For Increasing Solubility: A Review Of Conventional And New Strategies <p>Whenever a drug's success depends on its ability to disperse evenly in the liquid phase, solubility is a critical factor. Most active pharmacological compounds, on the other hand, are poorly soluble in water. The solubility of the medications is one of the most difficult parts of formulation creation. Due to a lack of water solubility, critical ingredients are left out of final medications, preventing them from reaching their full therapeutic potential. Due to poor water solubility, many novel medicines fail to launch in the market, despite their promising pharmacokinetic properties. Solubility in water limits the potential bioavailability of molecules that would otherwise have a significant impact on their physiological target. To achieve the desired (anticipat5ed) pharmacological response in the systemic circulation, aqueous solubility of a drug also affects the physical, chemical, dose stability, severs as a standard for purity, dissolution rate, rate and extent of absorption, and achieves the desired concentration of the drug in systemic circulation. When it comes to the formulation of medications, solubility is an extremely essential issue. A new API with high market demand must be developed by the formulation scientist if the molecule is to make it through the pharmaceutical development process. Solubilization techniques, such as chemical modification using solubilizers such as soluplus, povacoat, and dendrimers, as well as physical modification, complexation, and the use of surfactant, are being discussed in this review article because they are becoming increasingly important to the pharmaceutical industry by opening up new pathways for the preparation of effective and marketable drugs.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Keerti Yadav, Anupam Kr. Sacha, Sunil Kumar, Anubhav Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 16 May 2022 11:46:58 +0530