Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Ameliorative Effect of Allium Cepa L. (Red Onion) Extract against Potassium Bromate Induced Intestinal Injury‏ In Rats <p>Potassium bromate is an oxidizing agent and one of the cheapest dough improvers in the baking and food industry. This agent is classified as carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally. The red onion, <em>Allium</em> <em>cepa</em>, is used in the daily diet for taste. Compounds in onions also have various medicinal properties, such as being anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, and anti-inflammatory. We therefore sought to investigate whether aqueous extract of red onion would be protective against injury to the intestine</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: 36 Wistar male rats were divided into 6 batches. Over a 4-weeks experimental period, group I rats served as a control and group II received 100 mg/kg b.w of KBrO<sub>3</sub> on the 24th and 27th days. Group III received red onion juice at 1ml/100 g bw every day and 100 mg/kg bw of KBrO<sub>3</sub> on the 24th and 27th days. Group IV received 50 mg/kg bw of KBrO<sub>3</sub> twice per week, group V received red onion juice daily at 1ml/100 g bw and 50 mg/kg bw of KBrO3 twice per week, and group VI received 30 mg/kg KBrO<sub>3</sub> every day. The body and four organs weights, including the kidney, testis, lung and liver of all experimental rats were measured. The histopathological investigation was performed for the intestine tissues of all groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>KBrO<sub>3</sub>-treated small intestines exhibited destruction in the villi, decreased number of goblet cells, crypt loss and cell infiltration in the epithelial lining. Treatment with extract of red onion appeared to significantly ameliorate the toxic effects of KBrO<sub>3</sub>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings suggest that red onion ameliorates the extent of intestinal injury and appears to act as an antioxidant. This study supports that red onion has beneficial properties, although no direct clinical conclusions can be drawn from these data.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nadia M. Kermani Fikry A Abushofa Amera M. Adaek Fathia G. Jaat Fathia G. Shakhtour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 1 5 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1012 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Patikan Kebo (Euphorbia Hirta L.) Herb Ethanol Extract <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to determine the content of secondary metabolites, and the concentration of extracts that were effective as antibacterial and antifungal agents.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The research method was carried out experimentally with several stages; making Simplicia, Simplicia characterization, maceration, phytochemical screening, making test solutions, and testing antibacterial and antifungal activities.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract of the patikan kebo herb (<em>Euphorbia hirta</em> L.) showed the existance of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids/triterpenoids. Furthermore, the results of the antibacterial and antifungal activity test showed that the ethanol extract of the patikan kebo herb showed the diameter of the inhibition zone in the Strong category as the concentration increased.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The herbal extract of patikan kebo (<em>Euphorbia hirta</em> L.) has antibacterial and antifungal activity so that it has potential as a natural antibiotic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Helen Anjelina Simanjuntak Rahmiati Rahmiati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 6 9 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1017 Hepatoprotector Effect of Corn Silk Ethanol Extract (Stigma maydis) on Paracetamol-Induced White Male Rats <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Corn silk (<em>Stigma maydis</em>) is one part of the corn plant that contains useful chemical compounds, including flavonoid compounds. The ability of flavonoid compounds to capture free radicals that cause liver damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the hepatoprotective effect of corn silk ethanol extract on male white rats induced by paracetamol and to determine the effect of varying doses of corn silk ethanol extract as a hepatoprotector.</p> <p><strong>Data Sources Study Selection:</strong> This study is an experimental study testing the hepatoprotective effect of corn silk ethanol extract using male white rats</p> <p><strong>Summary of contents of the article:</strong>This study using 20 male white rats which were divided into 5 groups, namely negative control given NaCMC, positive control induced by toxic dose of paracetamol, and group of corn silk ethanol extract doses of 250, 500, 1000 mg/kgBW. The measurement parameters were the levels of SGOT and SGPT enzymes, the ratio of liver weight, and histopathological examination of the liver. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, statistically with two-way and one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's test and. The results showed that administration of corn silk ethanol extract could reduce levels of SGOT and SGPT enzymes, and analysis using two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference in levels of SGOT and SGPT in the test group with (p&lt;0.05). The ratio of liver weight was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The results showed that there was no significant difference to the ratio of organ weight in the test group with (p&gt;0.05). Histopathological picture showed improvement of liver parenchymal morphology on administration of corn silk ethanol extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that the presence of a hepatoprotector effect on the ethanol extract of corn silk and that there was an influence of the dose variation on the hepatoprotector effect with a dose of 1000 mg/kgBW was more effective as a hepatoprotector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nessa Nessa Ifmaily Ifmaily Yeliza Putri Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 10 16 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1008 Evaluation of Antidiabetic Potential of Eucalyptus Globulus Plant Extract In Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Evaluation of Antidiabetic Potential of <em>Eucalyptus globules </em>Plant Extract in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats.</p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Methanolic leaves extract of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> plant was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and stored in refrigerator at 4℃ for two days before use. Male Albino Wistar rats were made diabetic at the dose of Alloxan (150mg/kg/day i.p.). Methanolic leaves extract of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> plant (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg &amp; 600mg/kg/day p.o.) was screened for antidiabetic activity. Standard drug Glibenclamide (0.5mg/kg/day i.p.) was administered to the second group of animals for 14 days. Blood glucose level and body weight of rats were recorded on Initial &amp; Final days of treatment. Further hypoglycemic &amp; OGTT evaluation were done. At the end of treatment biochemical estimations &amp; histopathological examination of pancreas were also carried out.</p> <p><strong><em>Result</em></strong><strong>:</strong> The statistical data indicated, 14 Days oral administration of Methanolic leaves extract of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> plant caused a significant (????&lt; 0.05) reductions in blood glucose level, hypoglycemicpotential, significant oral glucose tolerance &amp;gain in body weight as compared with toxic control group. Further showed improvement in altered biochemical parameters associated with diabetes. Concurrent histopathological examination of pancreas of these animals showed regeneration by Methanolic leaves extract which were earlier necrosed by Alloxan.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Results obtained in this study substantiate the Antidiabetic potential of Methanolic leaves extract of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> plant the source of Ellagitannins a bioactive polyphenol and could be considered for further evaluation in clinical studies and drug development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ujwala B. Kamble V. J Chaware V. K. Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 17 28 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1021 Evaluation of Cellular and Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Asthmatic Effects of A Traditional Herbal Drug In Rats <p>The present study was performed to ascertain the therapeutic effects/aspects of <em>Lychnis coronaria</em> in ovalbumin (OVA) induced model of bronchial asthma in rats. Wistar rats were immunized with ovalbumin adsorbed on toaluminium hydroxide on day 0 followed by challenge with OVA on day 14 to experimentally induce/simulate bronchial asthma. <em>Lychnis coronaria</em> (1.5 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg) was administered (orally) daily for 14 days and its effects on airway hyper responsiveness to spasmogen and airway inflammation were assessed. <em>Enhanced pause</em> (<em>p-enh</em>), a marker of airway hyper responsiveness, was measured in response to different doses of inhaled methacholine using whole body plethysmography, following which rats were anaesthetized and blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected and analyzed for OVA specific IgE, pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and the Th-2 cytokine (IL-4). Results showed that OVA sensitization and challenge rats increased<em> enhanced pause</em> (<em>P-enh</em>) in response to different doses of methacholine as measured by whole body plethysmography. Assay of blood and BALF showed increased IgE, TNF-αand IL-4 levels as well as in OVA immunized + challenged rats compared to that of normal control rats thus validating the experimental model. Administration of <em>Lychnis coronaria</em>for 14 days induced dose-dependent reductions in <em>p-enh</em> values, as well as levels of OVA specific IgE, TNF-α and IL-4 as compared to that in the vehicle treated Disease control group. The result with prednisolone (10 mg/kg, orally) were comparable with <em>Lychnis coronaria</em> on all the parameters tested. The results showed anti-asthmatic effects of <em>Lychnis coronaria</em> via reducing bronchial hyper responsiveness as well as cellular and molecular markers of airway inflammation and immunity and thus, validating the therapeutic benefits of this Indian traditional medicinal plant for bronchial asthma</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pankaj Verma Kavita Gulati Arunabha Ray ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 9 5 29 34 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1022 Diabetes Mellitus and the Possibility of Developing Dementia <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dementia and cognitive dysfunction have many causes. There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. A prophylactic approach, optimal glycaemic control, and identification of diabetic risk factors are essential to preventing cognitive complications.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main objectives of this study are to assess the severity of dementia by using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), and the effect of longevity of diabetes mellitus on the severity of dementia.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> It is a Hospital-based prospective observational study, in which the patients were enrolled into the study after taking an informed consent form from them based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 80 patients, 62(77.5%) were suffering with dementia and 18(22.5%) were found to be normal. The diabetes patients included in this study had a duration of diabetes ranges from 6 to 30 years. Using the CDR scale, 24 of them (30%) were diagnosed with moderate dementia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>According to our findings, we emphasize the need to consider DM as a potential risk factor for dementia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. Nelson Kumar V. Wazeed Basha C. Sireesha G. Jacob Gnanaprakasam M. Pavan Kalyan Somanaboina Padmakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 35 39 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1004 A Combine Spectrophotometric and Chromatographic Method Development and Validation of Levetiracetam Bulk And Tablet Dosage Form <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Objective of the present analytical research work was to develop and validate Spectrophotometric method and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method (HPLC Method) for the Levetiracetam bulk and tablet dosage form</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A spectrophotometric method and a HPLC method have been developed and validated for estimation of Levetiracetam in bulk.</p> <p><strong>Method A (UV SPECTROMETRY Method): </strong>Methanol was used for the preparation of stock and working standard solutions of the drugs. 400-200nm UV range was used to scanned standard solutions of drugs using UV spectrophotometer. The λ<sub>max </sub>of Levetiracetam was found to be 220 nm.</p> <p><strong>Method B (HPLC Method): </strong>The HPLC method for Levetiracetam was developed using cosmosil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, particle size: 5 μm), as stationary particle, isocratic mode. Methanol: ACN: Water (60:20:20) pH3 as a mobile phase. The mobile phase was maintained at a flow rate of 1 ml / min and the detection was carried out at 220 nm. Both the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Levetiracetam was found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-50 µg/ml for spectrophotometric and HPLC method. Retention time was found to be 4.5 min for Levetiracetam.</p> <p><strong>Interpretation and Conclusion: </strong>Results of &nbsp;validation study were found to be satisfactory. So, the methods can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of Levetiracetam.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amol Pimpale Rutuja Pagare Smita Aher Dipti Phadtare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 40 49 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1000 Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) (Myrtaceae) Leaves Extracts <p>The phytochemical analysis of the medicinal plants are important and have commercial interest in both research institutes and pharmaceutical companies for the manufacturing of the new drugs for treatment of various diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the seeds of Syzygium cumini belonging to family Myrtaceae. The results revealed the presence of medicinally important phytochemical constituents in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Syzygium cumini seeds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.</p> <p>Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the crude methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Syzygium cumini <strong>(</strong>L.) The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against standard strains and clinical isolates of some bacteria using the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenols, saponins, terpenoid, cardiac glycosides and tannins as the chemical class present in the extracts. The extracts showed inhibitory activity against clinical isolates of the gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhi A, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Gram positive bacteria are Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the methanol extracts was more potent than the aqueous extracts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhavana Dnyandeo Tambe Pratiksha Pedhekar Pardeshi Harshali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 50 54 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1023 Treatment of Waste Whey by Solvent Sublation Method <p>Whey liquid is produced in large amounts all over the world every day, this liquid has a high biochemical oxygen demand due to which it creates a serious problem named pollution. But if the liquid is treated beforehand the problem can be overcome. While there are several conventional techniques to treat the liquid before dumping, still they are not as efficient as the solvent sublation method. However, this method is not widely studied yet for large-scale applications. In this study, our objective was to determine the effect of several factors which can alter this method’s efficiency e.g. pH, Gas flow rate, volumetric flow rate, the concentration of feed, etc. We discussed in which conditions the solvent sublation process will give its maximum efficiency. This study will not only help in wastewater treatment but also for the separation of molecules of interest from a solution.&nbsp;</p> Goutam Mukhopadhyay Aditya Sarkar Manisha Samanta Tripti Pal Biswajit Chakraborty Chandrima Dutta Abhinandan Roy Pijush Halder Souhardya Dutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 55 61 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1024 Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Antiepileptic Activity of Ficusracemosa in Chemicals Induced Epilepsy in Mice <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To Evaluvate of Antiepileptic Acivity of Ficus Racemosa Extract Against Chemicals Induced epilepsy in mice, ficusracemosa is also used as antihyperglycemic, antiinflammatery , hepatoprotective action. <strong>Method : </strong>Anticonvulsant activity of three distinct dose levels of ethanolic extract of Ficus racemosa (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was tested in Swiss albino mice in seizures induced by Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. <strong>Results</strong>: The presence of , flavonoids, were detected in the bark of Ficus racemosa. The extract dose-dependent effect in the delay of the onset of seizures and reduction in the duration of seizure.<strong>Conclusion : </strong>The ethanolic extract of Ficus racemosa exhibited significant and dose-dependent antiepileptic activity, which may be due to the presence of antioxidant principles like flavanoidsand other phytoconstituent produce protective activity againstPTZ.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Prajakta J. Chavan Atish B. Velhal. Vithal J Chawre Vivek K. Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 9 5 62 66 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.997 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli <p>In Recent year's medication obstruction is a quickly developing issue over the whole world in the treatment of infectious diseases. The widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Anyway right now, nanotechnology research has been engaging more in restorative businesses with various advantages because of the way that surface area to volume proportion of Nanoparticles is quite large. In this exploration work, Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prepared by using a reducing agent like sodium borohydride and capping agent polyvinylpyrolidine.</p> <p>The AgNPs were set up by the chemical reduction method. Nanotechnology has its own importance it eventually reduce dose and also have a superior bioavailability than larger particles. The prepared AgNPs were subjected to characterization like particle size, X-Ray diffraction.&nbsp;In addition, the AgNPs drawing much interest in account of their powerful antibacterial movement. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs checked against the bacterial culture of Staphylococcus Aureus and E, coli. The zone of inhibition AgNPs was checked against both microorganisms. The results of this study demonstrate antibacterial activity of AgNPs against the bacterial culture of Staphylococcus Aureus and E, coli.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nitin Padole Jasmine Avari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 9 5 67 73 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1029 Survey Study: Based On Current Trends of People Regarding Self-Medication <p>This study was performed at Sai Druggist and Chemist Shop, Anand, Gujarat. We have included total number of 30 patients in our study to know current trends of people regarding self-medication in the region of anand district. Based on this study we have observed that out of total 30 patients 12 had taken the drug via prescription and 18 had taken the self-medication. We have performed the study on both the sex groups male and female and we observed that 10 male and 8 female had taken the self-medication, and 7 male and 5 female had taken the prescribed medication. Out of total patient 10 patient taken the self-medication by their own experience, 7 patients taken self-medication suggested by friend/family member and 1 patient taken self-medication suggested by the media/advertisement.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Naitik Trivedi Himaxi Patel Janvi Patel Nidhi Pavagadhi Upama Trivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 74 77 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.979 Repurposed Drugs and Alternate Therapeutic Possibilities for Challenges Posed By Covid-19 <p>Pandemics like SARS-CoV-2 and its associated illness named COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) have become a regular occurrence in the past recent decades. Though, novel Coronavirus devastated human lives, its earlier cousins SARS-CoV1, MERS and lesser known infections like 229E, NL63, OC43, HK01 were less threatening.&nbsp; Humankind should brace up towards identifying, managing and finding a suitable cure to prevent incidence of such deadly is a well-known fact that viral diseases can be curbed only with vaccines. In this respect, the world has witnessed both the design and delivery of vaccines against SARS-CoV2 in a record time. Candidates for Vaccines&nbsp;designed vary from targeting proteins or nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) of the virus, with or without adjuvants with a potency to generate memory. Though, this has been lauded by the entire humankind, there is still the need for other therapeutics to control and treat COVID-19. Therapeutic Drugs&nbsp;are inexhaustible group of molecules that showed some promise in diagnosis, treatment or prevention of SARS-CoV-2 but provide no form of ‘memory’. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge on the therapeutic options other than vaccines or licensed antiviral drugs that can be repurposed to be considered for the treatment and prevention of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khushbu Verma Neha Kapoor Lamha Kumar Neelam Yadav Ghorai Soma Mondal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 78 86 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.996 Artificial Intelligence: A New Era in Drug Discovery <p>Artificial intelligence (AI) is a simulation of the process of human intelligence through computers. The process involves obtaining information, developing rules for using information, making possible or accurate conclusions, and self-correcting. The development of new drug residues begins when basic scientists learn about biological targets (receptor, enzyme, protein, and gene). These targets involve the biological processes that occur in patients with a disease. Drug discovery can be through target identification, target verification, lead identification, and effectiveness of lead. AI can offer revolutionary insights into medicine, through data from genetics, proteomics and other life sciences that advance the process of discovery and development. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has recently been developed as a fiery element in the medical care industry. AI has exciting potential for prosperity in the field of biopharmaceutical. The biopharmaceutical industry makes efforts to approach AI to improve drug discovery, reduce research and development costs, reduce the time and cost of early drug discovery, and support predicting potential risks/side effects in late trials that can be very useful in avoiding traumatic events in clinical trials and ultimately clinical trials. Usually, drug development takes five years to go to trial, but the AI drug takes just 12 months. The rapid growth in life sciences and machine learning algorithms has led to enormous statistical access to the growth of AI-based startups focused on drug innovation in recent years.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Devendra Kumar Mishra Himani Awasthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 87 92 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.995 Cubosomes: A Potential Drug Delivery System <p>The discovery of cubosomes is a classic story and deals with food science, differential geometry, biological membranes and digestive processes. Cubosomes are highly balanced and nanoparticles in design formed primarily from the lipid cubic state and protected by a polymer-based outer circle. Hydrating a surfactant that designates cubic phase and then disperses a solid state into smaller particles, typically forms cubosomes. They behave concretely like rheology with unique properties of practical interest. Cubosome formation can be optimized to engineer pore size or consist of bioactive lipids, polymers can be used for targeting to the outer circle and they are highly secure under physiological conditions. This type of network structure gives them greater drug trapping potential. Related to liposomes, the structure adds a significantly more enhanced membrane surface area to trap membrane proteins and small drug entities. Cubosome may increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Due to modern advances, nanoparticles patterns include drug delivery, membrane bioreactors, artificial cells and biosensors and can be engineered both in vitro. This review, focused on modern advances in cubosome technology, not only facilitates their work but also contributes to standard procedures for the rational design of innovative systems for biomedical applications. Due to the nature of cubosome dispersion being bio-adhesive and biocompatible, as well as having different properties, cubosomes are functional systems, administered in a variety of ways, such as orally and parenterally. Cubosome structure is investigated through electron microscopy, light scattering, X-rays, and NMR, although some researchers are studying the potential of cubosomes as a delivery system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kajal Chaudhary Devender Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 93 101 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.981 Novel Corona Virus: Its Origin, Current Dignosis And Various Diseases Arises Due To Covid-19 <p>Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 is responsible for the emergence and propagation of new coronavirus illness 2019 i.e.&nbsp;COVID-19, have posed a significant threat to global public health. Coronaviruses are enveloped single positive-stranded RNA viruses with the biggest viral genome (26-33kb) among the RNA viruses, belonging to the Corona viridae family.This potentially deadly virus spreads quickly from person to person. To control the epidemics of COVID-19, large-scale measures such as isolation of infected patients, social distancing, frequent washing of hands, and the usage of face masks have been implemented.In this review, we provide a brief overview of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus outbreaks,its origin, symptoms, clinical features, preventive measures, current diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. We also discuss about various diseases arises due to COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gawali Mangesh B Sangle Rahul R ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 9 5 102 110 10.22270/ajprd.v9i5.1026