Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> The Effect of Gaze Stability Exercise Intervention on Increasing Dynamic Balance in the Elderly <p>Background: Physiological changes from decreased muscle strength, posture change, somatosensory system (visual, vestibular, proprioception) causes balance disorders in elderly. Gaze stability exercise is a proper exercise since it is based on pathophysiology of elderly imbalance caused by aging of sensory system and skeletal muscle. Objective: to find out the effect of Gaze Stability Exercise Intervention on increasing dynamic balance in elderly. Method: a pre-experimental with one group pre-posttest design. There were 11 elderly as samples selected with purposive sampling technique. Intervention was done twice a week for four weeks with duration of 60 minutes. Dynamic balance measurement used Time Up and Go Test (TUGT). Data analysis used was paired- t test. Result: The average time up and go test before intervention was 17.82 and after invention was 13.82.the result of before and after statistical test showed p value of 0.000 (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: There is an effect of Gaze Stability Exercise Intervention on increasing dynamic balance in elderly</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ratu Karel Lina Olivia Filziah Ningrum Erna Sariana Santa Manurung Wartonah . ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 1 3 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1229 Inhalation Anesthetics for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in General Anesthesia Patients <p>Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is an anesthetic complication which is related to various factors. Patients who experience postoperative nausea and vomiting have worse quality of recovery which causes delay in patient discharge from the hospital which will increase the cost of care. Objective: To knowing the effect of inhalation anesthetics on postoperative nausea and vomiting in general anesthesia patients at Dr Soedirman Hospital Kebumen. Method: The study is a quasi-experimental quantitative study with a pre-test-post-test design with a control group design. The population of the study were all patients undergoing general anesthesia at Dr Soedirman Hospital Kebumen. The study was conducted in September - October 2022 with a sample of 56 respondents for each group which was determined using a purposive sampling technique. Data analysis using the Wilcoxon test. Result: Results of analysis of the effect of inhalational anesthesia on postoperative nausea and vomiting in general anesthesia patients at Dr Soedirman Hospital Kebumenp (sig) 0.000. Conclusion: There is an effect of inhalation anesthetics on postoperative nausea and vomiting in general anesthesia patients</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ircham Saifuddin Destiana . Muhammad Abdul Aziz Bondan Palestin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 4 7 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1227 Randomized two way crossover open label study to compare the bioequivalence of LOSARDIL 100 TM (Drug International Ltd, Bangladesh) and COZAAR TM (Merck Sharp & Dhome Ltd, UK) in Bangladeshi normal male volunteers <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> A crossover-randomized bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of losartan (100 mg) tablets was carried out in 16 healthy male Bangladeshi volunteers. The test and reference formulations were LOSARDIL 100™ (Drug International Ltd, Bangladesh) and COZAAR™ (Merck Sharp &amp; Dohme Ltd, UK), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Each tablet was administered with 150 mL of water to subjects after whole night fasting condition on two therapy days distinct by 1 week washout period. After administration, blood samples were accumulated periodically for 24 hours. The plasma concentrations of losartan were evaluated using a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC<sub>0→24h</sub>, t<sub>1/2</sub>, and K<sub>el</sub> were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean (± SD) AUC<sub>0→24h</sub> for losartan of test drug LOSARDIL 100<sup>TM</sup> for 16 volunteers was 3310 ± 1165 whereas it was 3545 ± 1251 for losartan of COZAAR<sup>TM </sup>. The relative bioavailability (LOSARDIL 100<sup>TM</sup>/COZAAR<sup>TM</sup> ratio) was 93%. The C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, half-life of elimination (t<sub>1/2</sub>) and the rate of elimination (K<sub>el</sub>) of losartan of test drug were 1855 ± 675 ng/mL, 0.77 ± 0.39 hours, 4.69 ± 1.17 hour and 0.15 ± 0.04 respectively. The C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, half-life of elimination (t<sub>1/2</sub>) and the rate of elimination (K<sub>el</sub>) of losartan of reference drug were 2254 ± 944 ng/mL, 0.87 ± 0.29 hours, 4.13 ± 1.41&nbsp; hour and 0.20 ± 0.04 respectively.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Depend on the statistical interpretation the 90% CI for the test and reference drugs were observed within the acceptance range of 80-125%. In conjecture, LOSARDIL 100™ is bioequivalent to COZAAR ™ in terms of absorption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Uttam Kumar Sarker Fatiha Farhana Atikul Islam Mir Misbahuddin Md. Rabiul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 8 13 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1228 Synthesis And Anti-Fungal Activity of N'-(3-Bromophenyl)-2-{[5-(4-Methylpyridine-3-Yl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-Yl] Sulfanyl} Acetohydrazides Derivatives <p>A series of Pyridine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The title compounds were prepared by condensation of substituted aromatic aldehydes with <strong><em>N</em>'-(3-bromophenyl)-2-{[5-(4-methylpyridine-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl] sulfanyl} acetohydrazides</strong>. The structures of all these compounds were confirmed by their spectral studies. Among synthesized compounds (DK-IB, DK-IC, DK-IG, and DK-IH) have shown good anti-fungal activity and Anti-Microbial Activity (500 µg mL-1) when compared to reference drugs Ketoconazole (25µg mL-1) and Chloramphenicol (25 µg mL-1). In this study, few derivatives showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity at low concentrations. The MICs (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of some compounds are 8-16µg mL-1.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dharyappa Teli Anil Metre Sangappa Teli R B Kotnal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 14 21 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1217 Anti diabetic activity of Cynodon dactylon Linn In streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats and its comparison with some standard flavonoids <p>The aim of present investigation is to evaluate Antidiabetic activity of hydroalcohol extract of whole plant of <em>cynodon dactylon</em> Linn. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Treatment with <em>Cynodon dactylon </em>hydro alcohol extract at two different dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and its comparison with standard drug gilbencLinnide at dose of 5 mg/g and some flavonoids i.e. quercertin, kaempferol and epicatichin each at dose of 100mg/kg for 15 days, after induction of diabetes by streptozotocin 50 mg/kg , caused significant decrease in level of tri glycerides, total cholesterol and significantly increase in level of HDL and body weight compared to disease control group. It is furthermore <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> Linn at dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg shows more significant result than some of standard flavonoids. Thus, whole plant of <em>Cynodon dactylon </em>Linn. may have potential Antidiabetic agent.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Naveen Garg Amit Bhargava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 11 1 63 68 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1212 Investigations on Kaempferol, Quercetin and Other Flavonoids in Aquatic Plants of Iraqi Marshlands-I <p>Aquatic plants are versatile source of phytochemicals that are of significant biological influences particularly, the flavonoids and their glycosidic derivatives distributed in different plant parts including fruits, seeds, leaves, flowers, stem, roots and rhizomes. Most of the reported biological influences are reported to be expressed by quercetin, kaempferol, isorhmnatin, and their glycosidic derivatives, particularly, rutin. In this survey, we summarized the reported flavonoids types, content and factors affecting their extracts contents of three aquatic plants Nuphar, Najas and Nymphoides detected in the Iraqi central marshlands, in provenance of Thi-Qar. Surveying the phytochemical investigations regarding Nuphar species of reported abundance of polyphenolic compounds content including identified and quantified phenolic acids, flavonoids like flavonols and flavonones, particularly, in their leaves. However, flavonoids/their derivatives types and quantities in various parts extracts are not reported to the extent of our knowledge although they are presumed to contribute to the reported biological influence of the plant on one hand. On the other hands, regarding Najas species, few reports have identified the existence of flavonoids as well as other phenolic compounds, although, total quantification to the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins are reported rather than identifying the individual flavonoid in the plant extracts. Only single report demonstrates the total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents of ethyl acetate extract of Najar minor according to our survey. Regarding Nymphoides species, the extraction level flavonoids as lipophilic compounds as well as their much polar glycosidic derivatives is depending on the solvent polarities. In general, in most of Nymphoides species the ethanolic extract querectin, methylquercetin and kaempferol flvonoides/their derivatives are identified individual flavonoids/quantified to be more than one fold of that in the aqueous extracts. Finally, the manner/position of glycosylation as well as glycosides sugar resides acylation vary among the Nymphoides species. In general, single 3-O- or di 3,4’-O- glycosylation pattern is noticed in kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. The multiply diverse glycosylation, methylation as well as acylation pattern of Nymphoides species flavonoids may explains their identification in various plant part/extracts besides the variation in their biological activities potentials.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Hussein Ali Hussein Al-Sa'idy Hussein Kamil Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 22 38 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1226 A Systematic Review on Clinical Research and Approval Process <p>Drug discovery is a key step or process by which lead molecule is been optimized for further preclinical and clinical trial studies. Drug development process involves target identification, target validation, lead identification, and lead optimization. Once the lead molecule is optimized the HIT compound is been analyzed further in preclinical trial in animals and clinical trial in human subjects. The development of a new drug till marketing authorization should gone through several stages in order to make the drug safe, effective and should posses best quality to get approve for applicable regulatory requirements. The overall theme of our article is to review and state the process from drug discovery to approval for marketing of drug. The process from drug discovery till marketing authorization is time taking, complex and expensive so each target should be consider for development of new drug and new research tools must be used for any new drug development process. It takes around 10-15 years and US$ 1 billion for a new lead compound to make it as a medicine and to get marketing approval for general public use. On an average million lead molecules are been scrutinized to make a HIT compound, so that it can be use for further preclinical and clinical studies to make it available in market. This article provides a brief outline on stages from drug development to clinical research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kushwaha Nishabh Akarte N. Kshitija ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 39 51 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1225 Review: Therapetic Approach in the Management of Osteoarthritis <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The goal in designing sustained or controlled delivery systems is to reduce the frequency of dosing or to increase the effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action, reducing the dose required, and providing uniform drug delivery. A sustained release system is a type of modified drug delivery system that can be used as an alternative to a conventional drug delivery system.</p> <p><strong>Summary: </strong>Osteoarthritis is a generative disease of synovial joints characterized by focal loss of articular hyaline cartilage with the proliferation of new bones and remodelling of joint contour. Risk factors of osteoarthritis are age, female gender, joint alignment, hereditary gene defect, joint injury and obesity.There are various symptoms of osteoarthritis and It diagnose by blood test, joint fluid test and MRI. Osteoarthritis is treated by self-care, medications, therapies, and surgeries. A sustained-release dosage form is a dosage form that maintains the therapeutic blood or tissue levels of the drug by continuous release of medication. Formulation of granules by wet granulation and the granules are evaluated by the pre-compression and post-compression studies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sustained release tablet optimize drug release for extended time period.It maximized effectiveness, reduced side-effects of drug and cures the disease.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Snehal H. Gawai Nilakshi N. Dhoble Nitin Padole Pankaj Dhapke Jagdish R. Baheti Baheti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 52 59 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1220 An Innovative Personnel For Pharmaceutical Administration <p>The drug-administration controls medication business. Its emergence as the effective controlling body in next century requires wise decisions for the realistic application of pharmaceutical quality; the professional foresight suggested that drug should coordinate with pharmacy academics for the specialized graduates in pharmacy administration</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Luvkush . ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 11 1 60 62 10.22270/ajprd.v11i1.1219