Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine and Valsartan in Tablet By UV Spectrophotometry With Successive Ratio Method <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aims to develop a spectrophotometric method by successive ratio method in simultaneous determination of AML and VLS on tablet preparations without separation.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study aims to develop a spectrophotometric method by successive ratio method in simultaneous determination of AML and VLS on tablet preparations without separation and then tested for validity based validation parameters, namely linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ and intraday and interday. Then, this method was applied to determine the levels of AML and VLS on dosage tablet.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Manipulating the ratio spectra of the binary mixture allowed their determination at 358,4 nm and 247,4 nm and in the concentration ranges of (4-12 µg/mL) and (6-18 µg/mL) for amlodipine and valsartan, respectively</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The successive ratio method can be used to determine the levels of a mixture of amlodipine and valsartan drugs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nia N. P Siti M S Muchlisyam P ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 1 5 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.959 Randomized, open-label, two-way crossover bioequivalence study of Novirax (Drug International Ltd, Bangladesh) compared with Zovirax (Glaxo Wellcome, UK) – two brands of Acyclovir – in healthy male volunteers <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> A crossover-randomized bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of acyclovir 200 mg tablet was accomplished with 16 adults and physically fit male volunteers from Bangladesh. <strong>NOVIRAX</strong>™ (Drug International Ltd, Bangladesh) was the test variant whereas <strong>ZOVIRAX</strong>™ (GlaxoWellcome) was the reference one.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> After a night fasting each volunteer was subjected to take a single dosage of tablet with 150 mL of water. After a week for complete washing out, a second dosage was applied. After that, blood samples were collected at a serial interval for a 24 hours period to observe the plasma concentration by HPLC technique. Several pharmacokinetic parameters like C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC<sub>0→24h</sub>, t<sub>1/2</sub>, and K<sub>el</sub> were estimated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean (± SD) AUC<sub>0→24h</sub> for acyclovir of test variant <strong>NOVIRAX</strong><sup>TM</sup> for 16 participants was 1057.5 ± 358.9 ng/hr/mL whereas it was 1134.9 ± 467.2 ng/hr/mL for acyclovir of <strong>ZOVIRAX</strong><sup>TM</sup>. The relative bioavailability (<strong>NOVIRAX</strong><sup>TM</sup>/<strong>ZOVIRAX</strong><sup>TM</sup> ratio) was 93.2%. The C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, half-life of elimination (t<sub>1/2</sub>) and the rate of elimination (K<sub>el</sub>) of acyclovir of test drug were 207.0 ± 86.9 ng/mL, 2.4 ± 0.4 hours, 3.2 ± 1.8 hour and 0.0898 respectively. The C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, half-life of elimination (t<sub>1/2</sub>) and the rate of elimination (K<sub>el</sub>) of acyclovir of reference drug were 230.7 ± 107.2 ng/mL, 2.0 ± 0.9 hours<strong>, </strong>2.8 ± 1.2 hour and 0.0921 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Depend on these statistical speculations; it was culminated that a <strong>NOVIRAX</strong> tablet is bioequivalent to a <strong>ZOVIRAX </strong>tablet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Uttam Kumar Sarker Mezbah Hossain Md. Atikul Islam Md. Shamsuzzoha Md. Najim Uddin Mir Misbahuddin Md. Elias Mollah Md. Rabiul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 6 10 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.964 Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of P. amarus Leaf on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rat with Arsenic Induced Toxicity <p>Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of <em>P. amarus</em> leaf was probed on hematological and biochemical indices in albino rats induced with arsenic poison. Acute toxicity of 100% ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated at dose range of 100 to 5000mg/kgbw for 24hrs and no apparent signs of toxicity were observed. However, exposure for 10days, death was observed for dose of 1000mg/kg and above. Thus LD<sub>50</sub> of sub-acute toxicity is 707.11mg/kg. Significant decreased in hematological indices observed, indicate alterations that affect the physiology and hematopoiesis of blood by arsenate administered and with normal levels of MCV and MCH, this suggest normocytic anemia. Furthermore, decrease level of HGB could implies that arsenic might have affected the incorporation of hemoglobin in the red blood cells or the morphology and osmotic fragility in red blood cells and this can affect oxygen carrying capacity of blood, although with MCV&nbsp;and&nbsp;RDW&nbsp;both&nbsp;normal, the RBCs are likely the same&nbsp;normal&nbsp;size. Falls in Platelets count with low MPV and irregular morphology as indicated by PDW infer that the bone marrow isn't producing enough new platelets which may result in low clotting capacity of blood. This is not caused by infection from bacteria as procalcitonin (PCT) in all groups showed no significant difference but the effect was that of arsenic poison. WBCs drop significantly, suggesting susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Result also showed increased bilirubin, an indication of cholestasis. However, these effects were significantly (P&lt;0.05) ameliorated in the treatment groups, as levels of these parameters were reversed. Conclusively, this might be as a result of phenolics in <em>P. amarus</em>. Phenolics excite their mechanism of therapeutics either by ways of antioxidant activities as free radical scavengers or chelators of metal ions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Frederick O Ujah Yusuf Y. Mohammad Vera E. Audu-War ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 11 15 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.973 Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Syrup <p>The cough it is a most common problem are face by the all people. There are two types of cough one is the Dry cough and second is wet cough. The dry cough is a no mucous and secretion while in wet cough there is cough mucous or secretion. The syrup is most commonly used and popular dosage form there is used in cure the cough and cold because it having ease of patients compliance. The herbal cough syrup was formulated using crude drugs as Pudina&amp;Tulsi or Cinnamon as a main ingredient along with Honey. Today syrup is used for treatment of May ailments and to overcome symptoms of disease. The antioxidant syrup is used to treatment the cancer because of many stress condition and other oxidative reaction in body the free radical are generated by using theses, syrup the condition is overcome. Formulation at laboratory scale was done and evaluate for number of parameters such as PH, viscosity, Density, stability testing during evaluation formulation found to be stable and ready to use in a cough treatment.It is found that Antitussive activity produced by the Herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Devkar Mohan J Shaikh Shahrukh S. M Shahrukh S. M Amol G. Jadhao Miss. Jayshri Sanap Prashant A. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 16 22 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.955 Modulation of immune mechanisms during hepatoprotective effects of Dawa-Ul-Kurkum, a Unani polyherbal preparation in experimental model of paracetamol induced liver damage in rats <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Iimmunomodulatory effects of Dawa-Ul-Kurkum, a Unani polyherbal preparation and the possible mechanisms in experimental model of paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The drug Dawa-Ul- Kurkum has been prepared and provided by CRIUM, Hyderabad. Silymarin was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA) and paracetamol (marketed by Cipla LTD) purchased from general pharmacy shop. Biochemical kits were purchased from ERBA Diagonostic Mannheim Gmbh. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated by Kinetic method of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), serum bilirubin and total protein were estimated by End Point assay as per the instruction of the Kit Manufacture’s manual.Immunoglobulin and cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA kit manual method. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction by Institoris et al method. Lipid peroxidation is measured spectrophotometrically as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), Glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated by the method of Ellman and NOx concentrations were determined by using the Griess reaction as described previously by Tracey et al.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats by administration of paracetamol and the effects of various drug treatments were assessed on morphological, biochemical, immunoglobulin, cytokine level and histological markers of liver toxicity. In the vehicle treated experimental group, administration of paracetamol induced significant derangements in liver function as evidenced by increased levels of SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase bilirubin and decrease in total protein, and reductions in body weight and increased liver weights as compared to controls. Histopathological examination showed Periportal necrosis with haemorrhages in experimental control. Pretreatment with Dawa-Ul-Kurkum (DK, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and hydroalcoholic extract of DK (HA, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) showed protective effects against the paracetamol induced biochemical, immunoglobulin, cytokine, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction and histopathological derangements of liver function following paracetamol.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> Both DK and its 50% hydro-alcoholic extract were found to be effective against paracetamol induced liver damage as they significantly prevented the hepatotoxic damage induced in rats.</p> Reshi Mohd Rafi Gulati Kavita Ray Arunabha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 23 30 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.966 Comparative Evaluation of Cinnamon Plant for Their Antimicrobial Efficacy against Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Cinnamon was grounded in mortal and pestle with addition of 10ml distill water. Then it is subjected to vortex and centrifuged to collect the supernatent. This extract was collected in a test tube. In the qualitative phytochemical testing presence of various secondary metabolites were found viz. saponin, tannin, flavonoid, carbohydrate, protein, steroids, terpenoids and soluble starch. saponin, terpenoids and carbohydrate were found in abundance while protein, steroid, soluble starch, tanin and flavonoid were found in moderate amount. Less or no amount of alkaloids, phytosterols and phenol were found. In the quantitative analysis titration of ascorbic acid and citric acid were performed and spectrophotometry of carbohydrates and phenols were performed. Ascorbic acid and carbohydrate was found in moderate amount while citric acid and phenols were found in fewer amounts. Then the antimicrobial activity of cinnamon were studied by the disk diffusion method.The antibacterial activity of cinnamon against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>S. epidermis</em> was found to be nil. Whereas the antifungal activity of cinnamon against <em>A. niger</em> was found quite good while no activity in <em>A. candidus</em>. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon is quite poor against p. corylophilum and Penicillium species.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khushbu Verma Gulab Chandra Ajay Pratap Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 31 38 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.967 Development and Evaluation of Alginate Microspheres of Paracetamol: Effect of Different Concentrations of Cross linking Agent and Coating <p>The present work is to formulate the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded Paracetamol using calcium chloride as a cross linking agent by isotropic gelatin method. The study focused on the effect of different concentrations of cross linking agent and coating on the dissolution profile of Microspheres using sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) as coating agent. Microspheres were prepared by using 2% sodium alginate aqueous solution with three different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15% w/v) of cross linking agent (CaCl2), followed by coating with 2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (low viscosity grade). Uncoated microspheres were evaluated for micromeritic properties like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, and Hauser’s ratio and for drug content. The in vitro drug release study was done for both uncoated and coated microspheres.</p> <p>The physical parameters such as Drug contents, bulk density, tap density, angle of repose, carr’s index, hausnor’s ratio and In Vitro drug release studies were determined. Further studies are needed to investigate this formulation for its performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhavana Dnyandeo Tambe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 39 42 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.968 Elemental analysis of Andrographis echioides (L.)Nees. leaves, a potential pharmaceutical plant using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). <p><em>Andrographis echioides</em> (L.) a herbaceous plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family, which is widely used for traditional medicinal purposes. The present study was aimed to analyze the elemental composition in leaves of <em>Andrographis echioides</em> (L.) Nees. using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)..A total of 12 elements Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Cadmium, Nickel, Sodium, Lead, Chromium, Zinc, Silver, and Copper have been analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that Calcium has the highest concentration among other elements analyzed. It shows the ability of this plant to maintain the proper functioning of cells in our body. It also plays an important role in the functioning of our nervous system. The concentration of iron and magnesium was also significant. Iron is an essential element for blood production and Magnesium play an important role in human body to maintain cholesterol levels, maintains heart rhythm and also has the capacity to converts blood sugar into energy. <em>Andrographis echioides</em> (L.) Nees. plant can be utilized for treating deficiencies of different essential macro and micro-nutrients for maintaining good health. The plant can be utilized for various other pharmaceutical purposes also.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Preetha. P.S Anjana Kartha. A.J. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 43 47 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.974 Preparation and Characterization of Different Types of Extruders and Its Techniques <p>The study on characterization of different types of extruder such as single screw cone type, axial type extruder, radial type extruder, die roller type extruder from excipient, enzyme and silica has been performed. The primary goal of the project focuses on making pellets from MCC+LACTOSE, MCC+STARCH, Enzyme and Silica. The process is extremely encouraged in several pharmaceutical industries. The below article will help us understand various aspects of techniques used in the extrusion of pellets. The extruder process of pellets are mainly mixing and extrusion. We will also discuss about the several factors that might influence the pellet quality which includes formulation - granulating liquid, excipients; Equipment (Rapid mixer granulator, various type of extruder, and size of extrusion screen) and process (Extrusion speed, extrusion time). The characterization of the pellets includes estimation of various parameters such as&nbsp; moisture content ,appearance, shape , bulk density, disintegration of the pellets are explained.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nikita Ogale Komal Kamble ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 48 51 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.929 Formulation and Evaluation of Fluconazole Gel for Topical Application <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The development of topical gel formulation is needed because it offers an interesting alternative for oral route to achieving systemic and local effect of drug. Topical gel is having important advantages like avoid GI irritation, avoid first pass metabolism and increase the bioavailability of the drug.&nbsp; Fluconazole is a synthetic triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infection. Adverse effects reported with fluconazole most commonly affect the gastrointestinal tract and include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, flatulence, nausea and vomiting, and taste disturbance after oral administration. In order to bypass these disadvantages, the gel formulations have been proposed as topical application.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Topical gel was prepared using combination of Carbopol and guar gum. Evaluation of the topical gel of fluconazole was carried out for physical appearance, pH, Spreadability, Extrudability, Rheological studies, Drug content, antifungal activity, in vitro release, Ex- vivo permeation study and skin irritation study.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The varying concentrations of two polymers were found to affect the gel parameters like drug release, Spreadability and its viscosity. The accelerated stability studies were performed according to ICH guidelines for 3 months and the results were found to be stable in varying temperature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Suvarna Shelke Amol Deshmukh Prajakta Shinde Pravin Dighe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 9 3 52 56 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.977 Clinical Signs and Pathogenesis of Trypanosomal Infection in Human and Animals <p>Trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease which affects both human and&nbsp; animals with high morbidity rate within months after exposure, particularly when poor nutrition or other factors contribute to debilitation. The disease has been a major threat to Human and public health concern and also has contributed negatively to food security in Nigeria.&nbsp; Trypanosomes are haemoflagellated parasites that&nbsp; suppress&nbsp; the host immune system through antigenic variation causing&nbsp;&nbsp; serious illness in man and direct losses in meat production and milk yield in animals leading to severe pathogenesis that result to death . The clinical signs of trypanosomisis have been reported as unnoticed, chronic and acute which can easily lead to death, while the pathogenesis are severe and diverse. A vast majority of human and ruminant animal such as cattle, sheep and goats can be infected without clinical signs.&nbsp; In this paper, we documented&nbsp; some of the major pathogenesis of trypanosomiasis that are leading cause of death and they&nbsp; includes Aneamia, Immunodepression, Immunosuppression, Myocarditis, oedema, loss of conditions, coma as well as&nbsp; infection of various organs and tissues.&nbsp; The paper recommend that further work&nbsp; on pathogenic mechanisms of trypanosomiasis&nbsp; need to be carried out so as to notice the exact clinical sign of the disease which will help towards controlling the disease.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fatihu Ahmad Rufa’i Abdullahi Ibrahim Zakari Atikat Umar Musayyiba Shuaibu Ali Alhaji Sani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 57 61 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.952 An UpdatedReview onBioinformatics and Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development Process <p>Drug discovery and development is a time taking process, it has high risk also. Sometimes it get positive result, sometimes not. To discover, development and bring it into the market; pharmaceuticals companies invest millions of money. From drug discovery to bring it into the market these is a step by step procedure, it requires proper human resources, updated technological support and huge investment. A convenient surveillance is needed into the whole process from discovery to marketization that new entity. So these are the reasons for increasing cost in new drug development and research. But in recent time bioinformatics and pharmacogenomics made a huge impact on new drug development. Its helps in drug target identification, drug designing, clinical trial, not only bioinformatics and pharmacogenomics reduces the cost in healthcare management but also improves the selection of proper effective therapy and development of personalized medicines.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Arindam Chakraborty Payel Mukherjee Manas Chakraborty Dipak kumar Singha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 62 65 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.942 Orodispersible Tablets: A Compendious Review <p>In recent times, there has been an enhanced demand for more patient compliant dosage forms. Oral route has been the gold standard in the administration of medications due to its safety, good patient compliance, ease of ingestion, pain avoidance and versatility. Dysphagia poses a problem especially in geriatric and paediatric patients. Mentally retarded patients, institutionalized patients and those travelling without access to water face a challenge as well. Orodispersible tablets are solid unit dosage form which when placed in the oral cavity swiftly disintergrates or dissolves without the need of water. ODT technology helps overcome the above mentioned challenges. Literature on ODT, their formulation and evaluation, challenges, manufacturing techniques along with patented technologies are reviewed in this article.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kenneth Roshan H.S Keerthy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 66 75 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.947 A Review on Medicinal Plants of Natural Origin for Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) <p>Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) related infertility is a global problem that is spreading at an alarming rate. Chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenism, as well as abnormal menstrual cycles, hirsutism, acne, and infertility, are all symptoms of this condition. PCOS is linked to insulin resistance and elevated levels of male hormones (androgens). Among other things, an inactive lifestyle, a lack of exercise, dietary changes, and stress are all contributing factors. Curcuma longa, Aloe barbadensis<strong><em>, </em></strong>Mentha piperita, Allium fistulosum Cinnamonum zeylanicum, and other plants have been shown to be effective in the treatment of PCOS. The aim of this review is to summarise the most effective medicinal plants that are used in the treatment or prevention of PCOS. Special emphasis is placed on the role of insulin resistance and the possible utility of insulin sensitizers in the treatment of PCOS.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shivani Andhalkar Vitthal Chaware Vivek Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 76 81 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.949 Liposomes –A Overview <p>Liposomes are sphere-shaped vesicles made up of one or more bilayers of phospholipids. The ability of delayed vesicles to transport medications, vaccines, diagnostic specialists, and other bioactive operators has accelerated development in the liposomal drug delivery system. The liposomal delivery system's pharmacyelements and pharmacokinetics properties have been altered, resulting in a higher therapeutic index and lower overall toxicity. There are many factors to consider, including size, size distribution, surface electrical potential, lamella count, and encapsulation efficacy. The use of surface modification in the development of liposomes with various mechanisms, kinetic properties, and biodistribution was discovered to be beneficial. Drug delivery, drug targeting, controlled release, and improved solubility have all been studied extensively with liposomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Akshay Kumar Patel Shivanand K Mutta Rajkumar Prasad Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 82 88 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.934 A Review On Brief Insight Into Spontaneous Human Combustion <p>The pseudoscientific principle of spontaneous human combustion (SHC) is the combustion of a living human body without an obvious external cause of ignition. Spontaneous Human Combustion eludes condition in which human body is found with huge segments of center parts of body reduced to fiery debris and substantially less harm to the head and extremities, and insignificant harm to the immediate surroundings of the body. The review was aimed to find the possible causalities of Spontaneous Human Combustion. There are basically two types of SHC and the etiology are found on the basis of some hypothesis. All the possible causative factors are covered and a treatment approach is also provided.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tulsi Patil Arun Soni Sanjeev Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 89 93 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.935 Pharmaceutical Considerations of Nasal In-Situ Gel As A Drug Delivery System <p>In situ gelling drug delivery systems have gained enormous attention over the last decade. They are in a sol-state before administration, and they are capable of forming gels in response to different endogenous stimuli, such as temperature increase, pH change and the presence of ions. Such systems can be administered through different routes, to achieve local or systemic drug delivery and can also be successfully used as vehicles for drug-loaded nano- and microparticles. Natural, synthetic and/or semi-synthetic polymers with in situ gelling behaviour can be used alone, or in combination, for the preparation of such systems; the association with mucoadhesive polymers is highly desirable in order to further prolong the residence time at the site of action/absorption. Nasal drug delivery is a better alternative of oral and parental route due to high permeability of Nasal epithelium, rapid drug absorption, avoid Hepatic first pass metabolism, increased bioavailability of drug, minimized local and systemic side effects, Low dose required, Direct transport into systemic circulation and CNS is also possible (passing blood brain barrier), Improved patient compliance, Self-Medication is Possible, prevent Gastro intestinal tract Ulceration. Recently, it has been shown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than the oral route. Thus, this review focuses on nasal drug delivery, various aspects of nasal anatomy and physiology, nasal absorption mechanism, advantages &amp; disadvantage composition of in situ gel, application and <em>In-situ</em> gels evaluations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Upasana Khatri Sunil Saini Meenakshi Bharkatiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 94 103 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.950 Role of Floating Tablet In Oral Drug Delivery System <p>Oral delivery of drugs is the most commonly used mode of administration among all the routes explored for the systemic delivery of drugs by numerous different dosage forms. Many components play a significant role in the development of the drug delivery system. Differences in gastric physiology such as pH and motility, have been shown to have important effects on gastric retention time and drug delivery activity in both intra- and inter-subject variability. FDDS focuses on locally active drugs with a narrow stomach absorption window or a narrow upper small intestine absorption window, are unstable in the intestinal or colonic system, and have poor solubility at high pH values.For drugs that are locally active and have a narrow absorption window in the stomach or upper small intestine and which are unstable in the intestinal or colonic setting. FDDS is particularly interesting because it has a low solubility at high pH. The methods for constructing single and multiple unit floating structures. These systems can help with a variety of issues that arise during the production of a pharmaceutical dose.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sumeet Kumar H.S. Keerthy Rajkumar Prasad Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 104 111 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.951 Sustained Release Matrix Tablet: An Overview <p>Sustained Release is also a promising method for reducing medication side effects by preventing the therapeutic concentration of the drug from fluctuating in the body.The basic rationale of a sustained drug delivery system is to optimise a drug's biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties in order to maximise utility, minimise side effects, and cure the disease. The drug release rate is regulated by the matrix. HPMC and other release retardants can help with sustained release, so they are used as a key excipient in the formulation.The method entails compressing a mixture of medication, retardant material, and additives directly to shape a tablet with the drug embedded in a retardant matrix core; instead, granulation may be done prior to compression. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, mineral, and biodegradable matrices may be used.To assess the drug release rate, in-vitro dissolution tests may be used. The primary goal of continuous release types is to improve drug therapy, which is determined by the relationship between the advantages and disadvantages of using one.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mandev Mehta H. S Keerthy Rajkumar Prasad Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 112 117 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.954 A Review on Banana Fiber and Its Properties <p>There are many types of natural fiber including hemp, flax, jute, wood fiber, rice husks, straw wheat, oats, bagasse, barley, grass reeds, banana fiber, oil palm empty fruit bunch, coir, sisal, cotton, kenaf, ramie, water pennywort, paper-mulberry, kapok, abaca, pineapple leaf fiber. The production of banana in India is 13.5 million tons per annual. Banana forming generates more quantity of biomass which goes as waste. The above ground parts like pseudo-stem and peduncle are the major source of fiber. Banana fiber used as a raw material in industry for production of papers, tea bags, currency and reinforced as a polymer composite. Natural fiber is used as an alternative resource to synthetic fibers as well as reinforcement for polymer composite materials and the manufacturing is inexpensive, renewable and environment friendly. Natural fibers have low cost, low density and low durability as compare to synthetic fibers but with the help of fiber treatments, mechanical properties of natural fibers are improved. In this paper, banana fibers are compared through their applications, use and properties and thus it is concluded that the banana fibers provide better chemical composition and properties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> V. Kavitha Aparna G ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 118 121 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.956 A Review on Fast Dissolving Oral Films <p>Oral route are the most convenient and common route of administration of drug because of the low cost of therapy and ease of administration lead to high levels of patient compliance as in the form of tablets and capsules. Generally In some cases, the oral solid dosage form may become difficult especially in swallowing. So to overcome these problems, fast dissolving drug delivery systems have been developed which disintegrate or dissolve within one minute when placed in the mouth without water or chewing. These are the formulations administered without water. These thin sized oral film stripes are designed in such a manner for the ease administration of drug when film is placed on or under the tongue. These film enables the drug to deliver directly in to the blood stream either through buccal or sublingually. Oral films improve the onset of action, lower the dosing and enhance the bioavailability.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Karthik D R H.S. Keerthy Rajkumar Prasad Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 122 128 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.969 Nutrition, Lifestyle & Immunity: Maintaining Optimal Immune Function & Boost Our Immunity <p>In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, people are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of good hygiene, healthy food for ensuring optimal immune function to keep viral/ other infections (communicable diseases) at bay. Immunity is the ability of body to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells. The immune system is very complex. It is made up of several types of cells and proteins that have different jobs to do in fighting against foreign invaders. There are two types of immunity, innate immunity, acquired immunity. There are many different ways to boost immune system which include foods, medicines, nutraceuticals, vitamins, supplements, minerals, vaccine etc. Immunity is affected by different factors including age, gender, sleep cycle, stress, foods, exercise, genetic factors etc. Women have stronger immune response than men and hence they are more susceptible to autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, IBD. Some environmental factors are also affecting the immunity. Person with weak immune system is more susceptible to various infections leads to various disorders.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ankita P. Patil Tejaswini M. Patil Asavari R Shinde Rohan R Vakhariya S. K Mohite C. S. Magdum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 129 136 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.970 Role of Transdermal Drug Delivery System <p>For several decades, many drug types, including tablets, capsules, pills, creams, ointments, liquids, injectables, have been used for the treatment of disease. These dosage forms must be taken multiple times a day to maintain the concentration of the medication. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), also known as “patches,” are dosage forms Built to deliver a therapeutically efficient quantity of medicine through the skin of a patient. By increasing patient compliance and preventing first pass metabolism, transdermal delivery offers a leading edge over injectables and oral routes. Transdermal drug delivery provides the patient with controlled release of the drug, allowing for a stable blood level profile, leading to decreased systemic side effects and often increased effectiveness over other types of dosage. The primary objective of the transdermal drug delivery system is to deliver drugs with minimal inter-and intrapatient variations into systemic circulation via the skin at a fixed rate.To address the difficulties of drug distribution, primarily oral routes, the transdermal drug delivery system was implemented. Modifications of the materials used were mainly limited to refinements. The present review paper discusses the overall research on the transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) leading to the current drug delivery system (NDDS). We used convectional dosage method earlier, but we are now using a novel system of drug delivery. The transdermal patch is one of the biggest advances in the delivery of new medicines. The value of the transdermal drug delivery system is that it is a painless drug administration procedure. There are variables that influence the bioavailability of transdermal products. Such as physiochemical and biological factors. Iontophoresis, phonophoresis, electroporation and micro needles, etc, are many new techniques that have drawn interest due to technological development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aftab Alam Manjunath U Machale Rajkumar Prasad Yadav Mukesh Sharma Akshay Kumar Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 137 143 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.976 Mucormycosis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management <p>Mucormycosis (black fungus) is caused by Mucor and Rhizopus. After getting affected such warning signs; pain and redness around the eyes and nose, fever, headache, coughing, shortness of brain, bloody vomit can see. It can suspect in COVID-19 patients, diabetics, or immunosuppressed individuals. Mucormycosis, if not cared it may be turned fatal. Mucormycosis can cause different types of infections: rhino-cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and dissemination mucormycosis. In a study β- hydroxybutyrate (a representative of ketone bodies) and elevated serum iron levels were the major factors that enhanced expression of both CotH and GRP78, whereas lactic acidosis did not affect their expression. In addition, sodium bicarbonate reversed the effect of acidosis and protected β- hydroxybutyrate –treated mice from mucormycosis, implying the significance of correction acidosis as a treatment measure in patients with DKA and mucormycosis. The objective of this paper is screening, different pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Mucormycosis. An additional factor that significantly contributes to the poor prognosis of these infections is the inherent resistance of Mucorales to the most available antifungals, with amphotericin-B, posaconazole, and isavuconazole considered the most potent antifungals in vitro. According to the studies Rhizopus arrhizus is present in 85% of rhino-cerebral forms, compared with only 17% of non-rhino cerebral forms. However, recent data enlarge the antifungal armamentarium with the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency’s approval of the new triazole isavuconazole, however, comparative clinical data are lacking, and the respective places of polyenes and different azoles need to be discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pratibha Rauthan Deepak Chand Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 9 3 144 153 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.975 THE Garlic (Allium sativum L.) – A Promising Anti-cancer Drug <p>Globally cancer is the leading cause of death. The popular treatments in cancer therapies areradiation, surgery, chemo-therapy, involves high risk and expensive. The present day, modern cancer therapies are associated with several toxicities and lack of quality of life. Herbal remedies for cancer treatment are found notion to the Oncologists. Garlic known as <em>Allium sativum </em>(Family: Liliaceae), is one of the promising drug found to treat cancer patients and also to treat the toxicity effects produced by other cancer treatment. By consuming garlic regularly it shows protection to cancer and many ailments. Allicin is a major pharmacological component of garlic, reported to have anti-cancer properties and also used to treat drug-induced toxicity.</p> Sama Venkatesh Ayesha Aleem Ullah Mohammed Owaisuddin Rajesh Bolledu A Ravi Kiran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 9 3 154 159 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.932 A Review on the Drug Delivery System <p>Drug administration is the mechanism or procedure by which a medicinal substance is delivered to produce a beneficial result in humans or animals. Nasal and pulmonary drug delivery pathways are gaining growing significance for the treatment of human illnesses. Such routes provide promising alternatives to the delivery of parenteral drugs particularly for peptide and protein therapies. Many drug delivery devices have been developed for this purpose, and are being tested for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These contain amongst others liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins. Nanoparticles made up of biodegradable polymers show confidence that they meet the stringent criteria imposed on such delivery systems, such as the ability to be transferred to an aerosol, stability against forces produced during aerosolisation, biocompatibility, targeting of particular sites or cell populations in the lungs, predetermined release of the drug and degradation within the lungs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abhishek Singh Niketa Pal Rishikesh Sharma Aryendu Kumar Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 9 3 160 164 10.22270/ajprd.v9i3.928