https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/issue/feed Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2022-01-04T10:03:04+0530 Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi editorajprd@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1039 Ginsenoside Rg3 Alleviates Rotenone-induced Lung Injury in Mice by Its Anti-oxidative Properties 2021-12-15T08:55:31+0530 Wang Tian ajprdmk@gmail.com Wang Daohui editorajprd@gmail.com Zhang Pinyuan editorajprd@gmail.com He Jie editorajprd@gmail.com Han Bing editorajprd@gmail.com <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Acute lung injury is commonly found in patients with insecticide poisoning and the pathogenesis is related to oxidative stress. Ginsenoside Rg3, one of the main constituents of <em>Panax ginseng</em> <em>C.A</em>. Meyer, shows an anti-oxidative activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginsenoside Rg3 can alleviate lung injury induced by rotenone in mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>C57BL/6J male mice were divided into five groups (n=11). The mice in ginsenoside Rg3 groups were treated with ginsenoside Rg3 at dose of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg. Except for the control group, mice were challenged intragastrically with rotenone at dose of 30 mg/kg, once a day for 6 weeks. Subsequently, the lung tissues of mice were collected. The effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on rotenone-induced lung injury was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The oxidative stress in lung tissues were also examined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Rotenone induced substantial hemorrhage, alveolar wall thickness and neutrophils infiltration. These structural damages were attenuated significantly by ginsenoside Rg3 treatment. The lung injury induced by rotenone was associated with oxidative stress in lung tissues of mice. Compared with the control group, rotenone exposure resulted in the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA), the decreases of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GHS-Px), and the glutathione (GSH) content. Nevertheless, ginsenoside Rg3 treatment not only reduced MDA production but also increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and the content of GSH in lung tissue of mice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Taken together, this study demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 has potential to ameliorate rotenone-induced lung injury and the mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rg3 is mediated by its anti-oxidative properties.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T09:48:02+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1042 In-silico study of Stevia Leaves (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) as Antidiabetic Drugs 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Resmi Mustarichie ajprdmk@gmail.com Effan Junaedi ajprdmk@gmail.com <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder due to abnormalities in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Around 200 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, most of which is type 2 diabetes. One of the targets of diabetes treatment is the DPP-4 enzyme which works to degrade incretin from the body. Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides using cytetic drugs, biochemical compound can also be used for diabetes therapy, one of which is stevia leaf. This research was conducted to select compounds contained in stevia leaves based on their interaction with DPP4 in silico. The purpose of this study is a potential compound from stevia leaves to be a candidate for antidiabetic drugs. Tests were carried out on DPP4 inhibitors, namely sitaglipin, and 10 compounds contained in stevia leaves. The results show that there are three potential compounds namely isosteviol, steviol and steviolmonoside. Testing the Lipinski's rule of five and pre-ADMET parameters shows that the three compounds have the potential to be used as candidates for antidiabetic drugs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T09:52:47+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1041 In Silico Studies: Virtual Screening Of The Compound Of Sea Fan (Gorgonia Mariae) As Antiasthmatic 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Resmi Mustarichie ajprdmk@gmail.com Faruk Jayanto Kelutur editorajprd@gmail.com <p>Sterol is a secondary metabolites for a group of steroids that can treat a disease caused by synergistic effect between compound of metabolite with polyvalent activity. Sea fan (<em>G</em>. <em>mariae</em>) has a major compound (sterol) that has been used by the society of Maluku, Indonesia as an asthma substance but needs research done because it has not been reported widely and only empirical data from the society. For that, virtual screening is a necessary using the <em>in silico </em>method as a first step in determining the effectiveness and predicting the value of free energy bonding (ΔG), inhibition contents (Ki), interaction of amino acid residue using Autodock Tools 4.2, Lipinski Rule of Five and pre-ADMET in determining absorption, distribution and toxicity. The result showed that 24-methyl cholesterol had a value of ΔG (-9.98 kcal/mol) and Ki (48.26 nM), where the value of ΔG were smaller than salmeterol as a comparative drug. Prediction of oral drug candidate is a not eligible because the of Log P should not be &gt;5 (Log P = 7.635). The value of absorption (HIA = 100% ; Caco-2 = 51.404 nm sec<sup>-1</sup>) and toxicity (there are no risk of mutagenic and carcinogenic). Thus, compound of the 24-methyl cholesterol from <em>G. mariae </em>are potentially as asthma medications but cannot be administered oral.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T09:57:44+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1038 How is the Oral Hygiene of Elementary School Students?- Saliva pH, Saliva Volume and Saliva Viscosity 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Quroti A’yun ajprdmk@gmail.com <p>Background: Salivary pH, saliva volume, and saliva viscosity as part of the host affect the health of the oral cavity. High saliva viscosity affects the decrease in salivary flow rate which causes the accumulation of food debris which can eventually lead to plaque and tartar. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of saliva status on the OHI-S index in elementary school children. Methods: This type of research is observational with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted on elementary school students in four elementary schools in Sleman City, Yogyakarta, with a total sample of 100 children. The independent variable is salivary status and the dependent variable is the OHI-S index. Collecting data by examining salivary status and examining OHI-S and analyzing data using Chi-Square. Result: there is an effect between pH, volume, and viscosity of saliva on the OHI-S index in children aged 9-11 years with p&lt;0.05. Conclusion: saliva status affects the oral hygiene of elementary school students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T09:59:07+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1036 Studi Antiviral Andrographis Paniculata, For Herpes Simplex Virustipe 1 (HSV-1) Treatment: In Slico Study 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Resmi Mustarichie samgujral18@gmail.com Sandra Megantara editorajprd@gmail.com <p>Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a lifelong infectious disease. Research and drug development for this disease continues to be developed. Andrographis paniculata or commonly known as Sambiloto is a plant that is commonly used empirically as an HSV-1 drug. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these plants as candidates for HSV-1 treatment. This study will determine several bioactive compounds contained in Sambiloto against the HSV-1 receptor in an insilico study which can be the basis for the discovery of new drugs in the treatment of HSV-1 infection.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T10:01:26+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1035 Isolation and identification of flavonoids from avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill) 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Resmi Mustarichie ajprdmk@gmail.com Dudi Runadi editorajprd@gmail.com <p>Leaves of avocado (<em>Persea americana</em> Mill) contains bioactive compounds that can act as natural antioxidants. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the flavonoid compounds of&nbsp; avocado leaves. Research stages includes maceration, fractionation, thin-layer chromatography analysis, isolation and purification of compounds also identification of isolates in two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and by using three different types of solvents. Isolates were identified using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and infrared spectrophotometry. From the results obtained one isolate FA6 showed a single compound. Based on the results by testing the purity of isolates using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and by using three different types of solvents, isolates FA6 is a pure compound. Identification by using ray-visible spectrophotometry FA6 isolates showed maximum wavelength at 280.6 nm and 342.0 nm on bands II and on band I. Infrared spectrum ofisolate FA6 showed aromatic OH groups, aliphatic CH, C = O stretching, C = C aromatic, and C-O-C stretch. From the results obtained&nbsp; isolates FA6 is a class of flavonoids group flavones or flavonol (3-OH substitional).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T10:03:54+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1037 Characterization of Celecoxib β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes Using Solvent Evaporation Method 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Henni Rosaini editorajprd@gmail.com Novena Sandra editorajprd@gmail.com Auzal Halim editorajprd@gmail.com <p>Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Celecoxib is included in class II in the Biopharmaceutis ClassificationAsystem drug (BCS) which has low solubility and high permeability. This study aims to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of celecoxib by characterizing the inclusion complex of celecoxib β-cyclodextrin. Inclusion complexes were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using a water-soluble polymer, β-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were prepared in a 1: 1 ratio between celecoxib and β-cyclodextrins. As a comparison, a physical mixture with the same composition was made. Powder mixtures of physics and inclusion complexes characterized by physicochemical properties include: FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, DSC analysis, assay and dissolution test. The dissolution test was determined by the paddle method. The results of characterization of the inclusion complex using FT-IR spectrophotometry showed a shift in the wave number as well as the physical interaction between celecoxib and β-cyclodextrin. The results of the DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) decreased the enthalpy and melting point between celecoxib, the physical mixture and the inclusion complex. The dissolution test showed an increase in dissolution rate at 60 minutes, namely Celecoxib 55.03%, physical mixture 61.58% and inclusion complex 67.53%.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T10:10:54+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1045 Application of Red Dragon Fruit Dyes as Staining in Histological Study 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Ridho Asra editorajprd@gmail.com Rusdi R editorajprd@gmail.com Indah Kemala Fitrina editorajprd@gmail.com Nessa Nessa editorajprd@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> The betacyanin pigment found in dragon fruit flesh (<em>Hylocereus costaricensis</em> (F.A.C.Weber) Britton &amp; Rose) has many advantages, for instance as a tissue histology dye.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>determining the properties of organs stained with betacyanin red dye and finding alternative histology colors to replace synthetic hematoxylin-eosin dyes.</p> <p><strong>Summary of contents of the article: </strong>The flesh of the red dragon fruit (<em>Hylocereus costaricensis </em>(F.A.C.Weber) Britton &amp; Rose) was extracted using the Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE) method. The study employed six male white mice divided into two treatment groups: a placebo group induced with 1% Na.CMC carrier solution and a positive control group generated a toxic dose of paracetamol. The results were visually compared to hematoxylin-eosin with standard betacyanin and betacyanin extract of red dragon fruit flesh concentrations of 50% (v/v), 80% (v/v), and 100% (v/v).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Betacyanin from the flesh of the red dragon fruit can be applied as a histological dye in the liver of male white mice and as a counterstaining hematoxylin as a substitute for eosin dye at a concentration of 100% (v/v).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-14T10:31:29+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1046 Development and Validation of Difference Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Rosuvastatin Calcium and Aspirin in Marketed Formulation 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 R Padmavathi ajprdmk@gmail.com Y Padmavathi editorajprd@gmail.com N Raghavendra Babu editorajprd@gmail.com V Akhila editorajprd@gmail.com G Keerthi editorajprd@gmail.com <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To develop and validate a simple Vierordt method for the simultaneous estimation of rosuvastatin calcium <strong>(</strong>RSV ca) and aspirin (ASP) in fixed dose combination capsules by difference spectrophotometry technique in the UV region. Difference spectrophotometry is based on the utilization of difference absorption spectra corresponding to the same compound obtained at two different pH values.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The difference in spectral characteristics for the two drugs was observed in 0.01N acetic acid and 0.01N NaOH. The simultaneous equations were developed using difference absorbance and absorptivity values of the two drugs measured and calculated at 243.2nm and 297nm for RSV ca and ASP respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Two drugs have shown very good linearity in the concentration range of 10-100µg/ml. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines for the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, accuracy, and precision, which were found to be within the acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of rosuvastatin calcium and aspirin in fixed dose combination capsules.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Because this approach is simple and does not require a particular programme, it can be used as a substitute for LC methods in quality control laboratories that lack the necessary equipment for those techniques.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-12-14T10:40:21+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1043 In Vitro Formulation and Evaluation of Preparations Cefixime Nanosuspension 2021-12-15T08:55:32+0530 Armaliza Permata Sari ajprdmk@gmail.com Siska Esperanza Sinulingga editorajprd@gmail.com Ahmad Syukur Hasibuan editorajprd@gmail.com <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To produce a nano-sized cefixime formulation and compare the cefixime formulation with the dissolution test of cefixime from nanosuspension.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: Nano-sized cefixime preparations were made with nanosuspension using ethanol and propylene glycol as a solvent and tween 80 as a surfactant. Then the nanosuspension and cefixime suspension were evaluated including organoleptic observations.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: The intervened variable were formulation an evaluation of cefixime nanosuspension</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study was dissolution of cefixime nanosuspension.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The amount of soluble cefixime was measured by having a faster dissolution rate UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 285 nm. The average absorbance value of cefixime nanosuspension with propylene glycol solvent was 91.1192 ppm with a concentration of 1.05 nm, nanosuspension with ethanol solvent was 62.4998 ppm with a concentration of 0.72 nm</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Nanosuspension with propylene glycol with a very fast dissolution rate. Cefixime can be formulated into nanosuspension preparations using ethanol or propylene glycol as solvent</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-29T12:06:53+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1025 Standardization of marketed formulation Kipen Tablet for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential 2021-12-27T12:23:00+0530 Md. Sarfuddin Ansari ajprdmk@gmail.com Deepak Kumar Basedia editorajprd@gmail.com B. K. Dubey editorajprd@gmail.com <p>The primary objective of the current investigation was to standardize the formulation Kipen Tablet marketed as patented and proprietary medicine for treatment of various conditions of Pitta, according to the WHO guidelines. The procured tablets of Kipen were Light green in color, with no odor and a bitter taste. Kipen exhibited 8.1% total ash with 2.35% acid insoluble ash and 4.95% water soluble ash. The water soluble and alcohol soluble extractives were 1.36% and 1.3% respectively. The results of preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that all the classes of phytochemicals were present in Kipen. TLC analysis of Kipen was done using Curcumin as the marker using ethyleacetate: n-hexane (3:7) as the solvent system. Curcumin appeared at Rf value of 0.56 on the TLC plate. The quantitation of the curcumin was done by HPLC method and it was found that Kipen contained 3.75 mg curcumin per 250 mg of Kipen (1.5 %). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method and it was seen that Kipen was able to inhibit about 51% edema formation in rat paws. The analgesic action of Kipen was evaluated using tail flick method and the response time pain stimulus (thermal) was observed. The highest reaction time for Kipen was 6.26 ± 0.06.15 ± 0.242 sec at 30 min post administration while it was 3.46 ± 0.095 sec and 6.22 ± 0.171 sec for vehicle treated and Ibuprofen treated group respectively at the same time duration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-27T12:22:59+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1020 Assessment of antiurolithiatic potential of gallic acid on calcium oxalate crystallization and ethylene glycol induced lithiasis 2022-01-04T10:03:04+0530 Neeraj Kumar Patel ajprdmk@gmail.com Deepak Kumar Basedia ajprdmk@gmail.com B. K. Dubey ajprdmk@gmail.com <p>In the present work, the effect of gallic acid on nucleation and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and on ethylene glycol induced lithiasis was evaluated. Gallic acid is a natural phenolic compound found in several fruits and medicinal plants. It is reported to have several health-promoting effects.&nbsp;The presence of peaks at 3700, 1715, 1550-1650 are indicative of the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and aromatic ring respectively. The results of solubility analysis indicate that gallic acid is soluble in organic solvents easily and is partially or sparingly soluble in aqueous solution. Gallic acid was able to inhibit the rate of nucleation as well as aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals in the in vitro experiment. It is exerted diuretic action in rats and was able to decrease the activity of the biomarkers of lithiasis viz. lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in ethylene glycol induced lithiatic rats. It could be concluded from the study that gallic acid is a potent anti urolithiatic compound and can be optimized for treatment of kidney stones.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-04T10:03:04+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1032 Review: Lasmiditan Drug Discovery for Acute Migraine Treatment 2021-12-15T08:55:33+0530 Amelia Savira ajprdmk@gmail.com Meilinda Mustika editorajprd@gmail.com Ridho Asra editorajprd@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Lasmiditan is a compound developed by Eli Lilly and Company named REYVOW®. Lasmiditan is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1F) receptor agonist, indicated for the treatment of acute migraine with or without aura.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This review article aimed to discuss the review of the drug discovery of lasmiditan.</p> <p><strong>Data Source</strong>: The author made this review article using the literature study method that is relevant to the purpose of the review. Sources of information from national journals and international journals are accessed through online sites such as Google Scholar, Research Gate, Science Direct, Springer Link, and NCBI. The keywords used to search for journals are Lasmiditan, Migraine, Reyvow®.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Lasmiditan is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1F) receptor agonist, lasmiditan is the only drug approved for the treatment of acute migraine with or without aura whose mechanism of action is specific to the 5-HT1F receptor which has no vasoconstrictive effect.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-29T12:06:53+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1040 Review on Herbal Drugs used in Dental Care Management 2021-12-15T08:55:33+0530 Umesh B. Telrandhe ajprdmk@gmail.com Rutuja R. Lokhande editorajprd@gmail.com Vishakha N. Lodhe editorajprd@gmail.com Satish B. Kosalge editorajprd@gmail.com Shweta Parihar editorajprd@gmail.com Devender Sharma editorajprd@gmail.com <p>Nowadays teeth related disease is common among all ages of people and children. Ten out of five children are suffering from tooth decay due to the consumption of more sweets, chocolates, and eatable items by children. Various eatables affect the teeth and decay the teeth rapidly, so we need to understand the phenomena of diseases which is responsible for infection in teeth. Main objective of this review project is to collect the information and role of various herbal drugs used in Dental Care and for its management. Also represent systematic plant profile which not only useful in treatment of the teeth but also give the phytochemicals and therapeutic information of plants used the in management of teeth diseases.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-29T12:06:53+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1047 Integrative Review on Nutritional Dynamite for Anaemia of Adolescent Girls 2021-12-15T08:55:33+0530 S. Annalakshmi ajprdmk@gmail.com <p>Moringa Oleifera is a Miracle tree, native to India. This golden tree has high nutritional value in its each and every part. This locally available, economical, self growing tree has immense potential to control Iron Deficiency Anaemia. According to the “The Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey, Thematic Reports- 2019” states that investing in the nutrition of the 1.2 billion adolescents, will shape the world’s future. Ensuring Indian adolescents are nourished and growing well is critical to achieving India’s demographic dividend. Moringa is perhaps plant based, iron rich inexpensive food. Iron is notoriously difficult for the body to absorb, so it is necessary to eat foods that also include vitamins that will help our body to retain iron. If we try to prevent or drastically increase the iron level among adolescents adding Moringa to the diet can help to bring out the massive and enormous change.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-29T12:06:53+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1050 In Vitro Characterization of Nasal Spray to Asses Bioequivalence 2021-12-15T08:55:33+0530 Dilip Kumar. Cheekti ajprdmk@gmail.com P.V. Tarun Kumar editorajprd@gmail.com Ramrao Dhage editorajprd@gmail.com Shambulin Gappa editorajprd@gmail.com Bikash Sahoo editorajprd@gmail.com <p>To layout the characterization of Nasal sprays and discuss the characterization method and sampling plan to assess the <em>in <sub>-</sub>vitro</em> bioequivalence of test product and reference product. The <em>in <sub>-</sub>vitro</em> bioequivalence study of nasal sprays are useful to understand the efficiency of test product in comparison to innovator so that the equivalency in the <em>in <sub>-</sub>vivo </em>studies can be assessed.</p> <p>The <em>in <sub>-</sub>vitro</em> bio equivalency characterization of nasal sprays helps us to correlate the efficiency of test product with respect to the reference product, so that the efficacy and safety can be achieved in par with Reference listed drug.</p> <p>The characterization studies include the product behavior throughout the unit life cycle. The nasal spray test includes the SAC, Priming, repriming, Spray pattern, plume geometry, Droplet size distribution and Drug in small particles.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-29T12:06:53+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1028 Various Symptoms, Prevention and Treatments of Corona-virus (Covid-19) 2021-12-15T23:09:46+0530 Amol G. Jadhao ajprdmk@gmail.com Vaishali B. Magar editorajprd@gmail.com <p>Corona means “crown,” and examined nearly, the round virus has a “crown” of &nbsp;proteins called peplomers jutting out from its center in every direction. These proteins help the virus identify whether it can infect its host. The severe acute respiratory syndrome has caused an alarmimg situation of the worldwide. The first detection, in Decmber2019, there have been no effective drug therapy options for treating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. And healthcare professionals are using some drug like remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, hydrochloroquine, azithromycin, paracetamol, steroids, multivitamins, ivermectin, tocilumab, NSAIDs, treatment with monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma etc. of treatments. The condition known as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was also linked to a highly infectious coronavirus. The SARS virus has since been included and found to be successfully curable. The disease is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2), previously referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The symptoms &nbsp;is typically rapid, ranging from hours to days after infection. Symptoms include fever, cough and, often, sore throat, headache, Sneezing, shortness of breath, wheezing, or difficulty in breathing. &nbsp;Reduce their anxiety level effectively when they are in the events of stress by using reasonable coping styles. Early studies of the out-break focused on the novel coronavirus gene and structure modeling, host and clinical case analysis. Currently, hundreds of registered clinical trials are underway, most of which are assessing antiretroviral agents, anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant therapies, and passive antibody treatments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-15T23:09:46+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement##