Metabolic Complications Associated With Total Parenteral Nutrition
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a very important means of providing nutrients to patients who have no access to receiving nutrients by enteral route. It consists of all the essential components like lipids, protein, dextrose, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. The concentration of all these components can be adjusted according to the requirement of the patients. They are also available as fixed solutions. Administration of TPN requires careful monitoring as small change in concentration of nutrients in the solution may cause serious, life-threatening complications. Metabolic complications like electrolyte abnormalities, refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and many hepatobiliary dysfunctions like steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic dysfunction and gallbladder dysfunction are all associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition.
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