Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Mon, 15 Feb 2021 18:22:20 +0530 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Mapping of Community Pharmacy Practices in Medan City Indonesia http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/887 <p>Pharmaceutical practice standards are benchmarks used, especially pharmacists in carrying out pharmaceutical services. But this pharmaceutical practice has not been carried out by community pharmacy pharmacists. Pharmaceutical services are very dependent on the application of established practice standards. Therefore, revitalization efforts need to be made to meet the criteria of pharmaceutical practice in accordance with the applicable standards. This study aims to ensure that community pharmacy practice in Medan city and coaching efforts to restore pharmaceutical practices are in accordance with predetermined standards. This is a cross sectional descriptive research, using quistionnaires in Juni – September 2020. The research sample 105 pharmacist in community pharmacy taken by cluster random sampling. The results showed that the community pharmacy practice has not been running according to standards. The percentage of pharmacies with accreditation A was 67.6%, accredited B 21.0%, accredited C was 9.5%, and not accredited was 1.9%.While the percentage of very good category of pharmaceutical practice was only 20%, good category was 48%, just 21%, 9% less, and sub-standard criteria of 2%.Several factors play a role in determining the value of accreditation and pharmaceutical practice criteria after being statistically tested, namely the presence or absence of other jobs from pharmacists, pharmacy status, pharmacist's presence, and year of graduation from the pharmacist, with a significance &lt;0.05.Based on the explanation can be concluded that the practice community pharmacy in the city of Medan has not met the established pharmaceutical standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Imelda Ferendina, Wiryanto W, Urip Harahap ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/887 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 11:54:58 +0530 the Effectiveness of Red Betel (Piper crocatum) Leaf Ethanol Extract Mouthwash in Reducing Dental Plaque Index http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/902 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The purpose of this research was to determine the difference in the effectiveness of mouthwash of red betel leaf extract on the dental plaque index.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong>This research design is Quasi experimental. The ethanol extract of red betel leaf was prepared in various concentrations for use by the correspondents as a mouthwash. Dental plaque was observed before and after treatment, then compared the differences in results between groups.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong>The intervention variable in this study was a mouthwash preparation containing 4% and 5% ethanol extract of red betel leaf, then compared with a positive control mouthwash preparation containing Chlorhexidine.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong>The results showed a decrease in the dental plaque index in the correspondents who were given mouthwash containing 4% and 5% red betel leaf ethanol extract. The anova test showed a significant difference between the dental plaque index between before and after treatment (p <u>&lt;</u>0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Mouthwash containing ethanol extract of red betel leaves is effective in reducing the dental plaque index value.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rawati Siregar, Sondang S, Netty Jojor Aritonang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/902 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 12:06:25 +0530 Evaluation of Potential Drug Side Effects in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients who have been Diagnosed by Genexpert Method http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/903 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to evaluation potential drug side effects in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients who have been diagnosed by genexpert method</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: this research used a descriptive analysis research design. The population used in this study were MDR-TB patients at the DOTS TB and MDR TB Poly in RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan in 2017-2019, the research sample obtained was 100 patients and data collection used a cross sectional approach.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: the intervened variable were therapeutic regimen, used of additional drugs and duration of therapy</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study was therapeutic side effects</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: the results showed that treatment of MDR-TB patients mostly used the standard combination regimen, namely Km-Lfx-Eto-Cs-Z- (H) - (E) as much as 35%. Side effect found was nausea at 20.55%. The use of additional vitamin B6 drugs in MDR-TB patients was 92% because treatment using kanamycin, etionamide, levofloxacin and cycloserine had side effects of peripheral neuropathy. Of the length of treatment that was still undergoing treatment in 2019, the highest number was 59%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: it could&nbsp; be concluded the most common side effect found in the average number was nausea at 20.55% and peripheral neuropathy<em>.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fenny Hasanah, Eva Sartika Dasopang, Tedy Kurniawan Bakri, Darmayanto D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/903 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 12:20:30 +0530 The Utilization of Kepok Banana Fruit (Musa Paradisiaca, L.,) As An Alternative Media NA (Nutrient Agar) for the Growth Of Bacteria and Mushrooms http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/914 <p>The high cost of instant media such as nutrients encourages researchers to find alternative media from materials that are easily available and cheap. This study aims to determine the growth of bacteria and fungi in alternative media using different carbohydrate sources. The carbohydrate sources used were banana peel and kepok fruit and the results were compared with Nutrient agar (NA) media for bacterial growth and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium for fungal growth.</p> <p>This research was conducted experimentally. Kepok banana fruit is processed by cutting it into small pieces then mashed in a blender then filtered and deposited to get the starch, then dried in a drying cupboard at 40<sup>o</sup>C for 12 hours or until the texture is cracked and dry. The tested bacteria and fungi were inoculated by the scatter method and incubated at 37<sup>°</sup>C for 24 hours. The parameters observed were the number of bacterial and fungal colony populations. The <em>mutant Streptococc</em><em>us</em>was highest population of in the kepok banana starch medium with a concentration of 5%, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>&nbsp; the highest population of was in the kepok banana starch medium with a concentration of 5% and&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em>&nbsp; the highest population of was in the kepok banana starch medium with a concentration of 5%.</p> <p>Based on the results of the research on the number of bacterial and fungal colonies, the best results were on the medium of 5% concentration of kepok banana starch. The results showed that the medium of kepok banana starch can be used as an alternative medium for the growth of bacteria and fungi, the most optimal medium is the medium of starch of kepok banana.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eva Diansari Marbun, Supartiningsih S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/914 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 12:29:23 +0530 The Correlation of Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Medication Adherence Level: A Case Study in Community Pharmacy http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/915 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are patients with a low level of medication adherence. Low adherence causes poor glycemic control, thus increasing the risk of various chronic complications (microvascular and macrovascular).</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to determine the correlation between patient characteristics including gender, age, education level, occupation, duration of illness, and comorbidities on medication adherence to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at the pharmacy. Methods: This study used an observational method with a cross-sectional study design. The study involved 40 DM type 2 patients who met the inclusion criteria at one of the pharmacies in Medan in August-September 2020. Data on the level of treatment adherence were obtained using the MMAS-8 questionnaire (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8). Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square statistical test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the majority of patients involved in this study were women (57.5%), aged 45-65 years (92.5%), high school education level (47.5%), and private employees/ traders/ labor (45%). This study also showed that the majority of patients had a low level of adherence (55%), duration of suffering from type 2 diabetes, 1-5 years (18%), and with comorbidities (75%). The relationship between patient characteristics and adherence level was gender (p = 0.636); age (p=0.922); education level (p=0.275); work (p=0.241); duration of illness (p=0.629); and with comorbidities (p=0.752) the level of treatment adherence was not significant (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of the study it was concluded that there was no significant relationship between patient characteristics including gender, age, level of education, occupation, duration of disease, and comorbid diseases on the level of&nbsp; medication adherence of type 2 DM patients at the community pharmacy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kiki Rawitr, Khairunnisa K, Wiryanto W ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/915 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 12:39:44 +0530 The Pattern of Hypertension Drug Utilization in Public Health Center in the Medan City http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/876 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypertension is a disease thatcan causes death as much as 12.8% worldwide. Hypertension is a silent killer that causes complications in Hypertension patients. Complications can be prevented by using anti-hypertension drugs. The aimed of this study was to describe the pattern of drug utilization in several Public health centers in Medan.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This non-experimental study involved 109 hypertension patients using cross-sectional methods. Samples were collected at several health centers in August and September 2020 using convenience sampling techniques.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The results showed that the single drug type that was most widely used in this study was the Calcium Channel Blocker (CaCB) group (57.8%). The most widely used combination antihypertension drugs were Calcium Channel Blocker (CaCB) and Angiotensin 2 Recep`tor Blocker (ARB) (15.6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Based on the study results, it can be concluded&nbsp; that the pharmacologic management of antihypertension uses a single anti-hypertension drug (monotherapy) is more than the use of combination drugs (polytherapy).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sri Wahyuni, Khairunnisa K, Harahap U ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/876 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 12:50:12 +0530 Chrysophyllum Albidum and Its Potential Damage to the Kidney of Wistar Rats http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/917 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study was aimed at determining the effect of graded doses of <em>Chrysophyllumalbidum</em> on the kidney.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>&nbsp; Twenty wistar rats (190-220 grams) were used in this study and they were randomly allocated into four groups of five rats each. Group A received food and distilled water only while groups B, C and D were treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg 300 mg/kg of <em>Chrysophyllumalbidum</em> leaf extract respectively. The study lasted for three weeks after which the animals where sacrificed and their blood samples and kidney collected for examination.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result from this study showed a significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in body weight in group of all treated groups. Also, there was a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in kidney weight in group C but a non-significant increase (p&gt;0.05) in group B and D when compared to group A. In addition, the serum urea and creatinine level showed a significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in the treated groups when compared with that of group A. Histopathological findings revealed a mild to moderate changes in the cytoarchitecture of the kidney.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This result of this study suggests that ethanolic leaf extract of <em>Chrysophyllumalbidum</em> may have the tendency of being toxic to the kidney tissue when consumed at higher doses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nweke E lizabeth O, Opara Julia K, Obiesie Ifechukwu J ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/917 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 13:38:58 +0530 Phytochemical Screening and Emulgel Formulation of Jernang Resin Extract (Daemonorops Draco (Willd) Blume) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/918 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Daemonorops draco (Willd) Blume is a plant that produces jernang, which is a red resin that sticks to the outer skin of the fruit. Also known as dragon's blood, it is used as a traditional medicine for wound healing, anti-diarrhea, etc. as a natural coloring agent. Emulgel is an emulsion that contains a gel base in a certain ratio. Emulgel has the advantages of increasing drug absorption, easy to apply and more comfortable, not sticky on the skin. This study aims to determine the class of secondary metabolites contained in jernang in the form of simplicia and their extracts and to make jernang resin extract emulgel preparations that can be used as wound medicine.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Jernang simplicia collected by dry method. The extract was made by maceration using 96% ethanol solvent, separating the solvent using a rotary evaporator and concentrating it on a water bath. Phytochemical screening was carried out on simplicia and extracts. The emulsion formulation of jernang resin extract was made in three formulas with various levels of extracts P1 (2.5%), P2 (5%) and P3 (7.5%), using Tween 80 and Isopropyl myristate (IPA) as surfactants and oil phase, and 1% Carbopol as a gel base, then the emulgel was made with a ratio of emulsion and gel base of 4: 1 so that the variations of the extract were made into three formulas P4 (2%), P5 (4%) and P6 (6%)</p> <p>RESULTS: The results of phytochemical screening showed that jernang simplicia contained flavonoid, glycoside and saponin compounds. Also compounds that are non-polar, namely steroids / triterpenoids. Whereas in the form of the extract it contains flavonoid class compounds, this is because the 96% ethanol solvent is semi-polar so that the compounds contained in the ethanol extract are polar compounds, namely flavonoids which are the largest content of compounds in jernang. Jernang P4 extract emulgel (2%) organoleptically has the best physical appearance, has the characteristics of a thick, slightly clear consistency, brownish red color, has a distinctive smell of jernang mixed with the aroma of Tween 80, and is homogeneous.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the form of jernang simplicia, it contains polar compounds (flavonoids, glycosides and saponins) and non-polar (steroid / terponoid groups) and in the form of jernang resin extract contains flavonoid class compounds. Organoleptically, the jernang resin extract emulgel with a content of 2% (P4) is the best formula compared to other formulas.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wulandari M, Arianto A, Yuandani Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/918 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 13:50:37 +0530 Formulation and Characterization Transdermal Patches of Meloxicam http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/919 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), an enolic acid derivative that inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme.and is usually used by the oral route in the treatment of a wide variety of rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, low back pain and various other joint diseases. However, when given, meloxicam is given orally, causing gastrointestinal side effects such as bleeding, gastric ulcers, nausea and vomiting, which can occur at any time when given orally.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Transdermal patches of meloxicam were made with a mixture of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone with various concentrations of enhancers (propylene glycol), that were (F1 10%), (F2 20%), and (F3 30%). Transdermal patches of meloxicam are prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The making of transdermal patches meloxicam was evaluated for various parameters, was evaluated physchochemical, organoleptic, thickness, weight uniformity, folding resistance, moisture content, and swelling properties<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Transdermal patches of meloxicam from three formulas were yellow patches, odorless, slightly wet and flat surface, thickness between 0.0225±0.0005 to 0.0249±0.0001 cm, weight uniformity between 322.56±2.22 to 368.98±1.42 mg, folding resistance between 355.00±3.00 to 386.33±1.53, moisture content between 2.889±0.003 to 3.654±0.009% and swelling between 2.86 up to 3.24%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of the study concluded that the meloxicam transdermal patch preparation had good characteristics, the results obtained met the requirements of a transdermal patch, namely having a flat and slightly wet shape and surface, having uniform weight, thickness, folding resistance and having good patch development power.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Suhaitamy M, Bangun H, Hasibuan P.A.Z ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/919 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 14:01:22 +0530 Acute Toxicity of Ethanolic Extract of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit Seeds in Wistar Rats http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/920 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of ethanol extract of <em>Leucaena leucocephala</em>(Lam) de Wit seeds(EELLS) in rats.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>simplicia powder of <em>L.leucochepala</em> seeds extracted by maceration with 80% of ethanol. Evaluation of toxicity effect used the fixed dose method which refer to OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development)420.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Acute toxicity evaluation in this experiment using different doses varying from 50-2000mg/kgbw, did not result in the death of any animals until 14 days of observation in the experimental evaluation period and there was no change in behavior towards rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>These results have shown that oral administration of <em>L. leuceocephala</em> did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats. Hence, <em>L. leucocephala</em> could be regarded as a safe natural product for therapeutic use</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Irzal Fanany, Marline Nainggolan, Yuandani Y, Saddam Husein ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/920 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 14:13:33 +0530 Potential Extract Ethanol of Aloe Vera Gel as a Rejuvination Agent http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/921 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of aloe vera gel in inhibiting skin aging.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The powder was extracted with ethanol in macerated method. Extract ethanol were analyzed for antioxidant activity with DPPH assay. <em>Aloe vera</em> extract that has been obtained then made variations of different extract concentrations namely 3% and 6% based on the orientation of researchers to determine the concentration, then in the formulation into gel. Anti-aging activity testing using skin analyzer tools with moisture parameters, collagen levels, pore, sensitivity before and after exposure to UV A and UV B rays.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> IC<sub>50</sub> value of aloe vera extract obtained by 138.65 ppm. Based on the classification of antioxidant activity shows that IC<sub>50</sub> value of aloe vera extract has moderate antioxidants that range from 101 to 250 ppm. The percentage of moisture content in week I to week IV, F3 has an increase of 26% i.e week 1 is 4% and week IV is 30%. The percentage of collagen levels in week I to week IV, F3 has an increase of 50% i.e week 1 is 30% and week IV is 80%. Increase in the percentage of elasticity in the week I to week IV. F3 had the highest increase of 25%, in week 1 it was 50% and week IV was 75%. A large decrease in pores occurs in weeks I through week IV. F3 had the highest decrease of 0.06 mm, in the week I was 0.07 mm and week IV was 0.01 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Aloe vera extract gel preparation has activity as a rejuvenation agent at a concentration of 6%.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kartika Y, Nyoman E.L, Edy F, Chrismis N.G ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/921 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 14:24:52 +0530 The Evaluation of Rationality of Medicines Use in Terms of Prescribing Indicators At The Health Center (Puskesmas) Serdang Bedagai District In 2019 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/923 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of aloe vera gel in inhibiting skin aging.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The powder was extracted with ethanol in macerated method. Extract ethanol were analyzed for antioxidant activity with DPPH assay. <em>Aloe vera</em> extract that has been obtained then made variations of different extract concentrations namely 3% and 6% based on the orientation of researchers to determine the concentration, then in the formulation into gel. Anti-aging activity testing using skin analyzer tools with moisture parameters, collagen levels, pore, sensitivity before and after exposure to UV A and UV B rays.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> IC<sub>50</sub> value of aloe vera extract obtained by 138.65 ppm. Based on the classification of antioxidant activity shows that IC<sub>50</sub> value of aloe vera extract has moderate antioxidants that range from 101 to 250 ppm. The percentage of moisture content in week I to week IV, F3 has an increase of 26% i.e week 1 is 4% and week IV is 30%. The percentage of collagen levels in week I to week IV, F3 has an increase of 50% i.e week 1 is 30% and week IV is 80%. Increase in the percentage of elasticity in the week I to week IV. F3 had the highest increase of 25%, in week 1 it was 50% and week IV was 75%. A large decrease in pores occurs in weeks I through week IV. F3 had the highest decrease of 0.06 mm, in the week I was 0.07 mm and week IV was 0.01 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Aloe vera extract gel preparation has activity as a rejuvenation agent at a concentration of 6%.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Irawati Sasmita, Khairunnisa K, Dalimunthe Aminah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/923 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 14:37:32 +0530 Anti Inflammatory Potential of Euphoria Hirta L. Leaves In Jaipur Region http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/884 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Euphorbia hirta Linn. (<em>E.hirta</em> L.) is a medicinal herb belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is commomly known as Asthma plant, Duddhi, Bara duddhi. It has been claimed for the various medicinal properties such as inflammation, diarrhoea, bronchitis, kidney stones, peptic ulcer, menstrual problems etc.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: the goal of our research work is to assessing the anti inflammatory activity of <em>E.hirta</em> L. leaves in regards to phytochemical studies.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The method carragennan induced paw edema in rats was used to assess the anti inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of <em>E.hirta</em> L. leaves. The extract was obtained by maceration method and the analysis of phytochemicals was carried out by performing different chemical test in laboratory. Crude aqueous extract was given orally at different doses of 100mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg in wistar albino rats 30mins before carragennan injection. Ibuprofen (50mg/kg) was taken as reference drug. The volume of paw edema was measured by using plethysmometer at 1, 2 and 3 hr after carragennan administration.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The preliminary phytochemical study reveals the availibility of flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins etc in different solvents of crude drug extract. The anti inflammatory effect of crude drug extract was exhibited a remarkable dose dependent reduction in paw edema volume. The inhibitory effect was highest at 500mg/kg dose of drug. Extract and ibuprofen showed 52% and 66% inhibition of paw edema respectively, at 3hr after carragennan administration.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>E.hirta</em> L. leaves aqueous extract has a strong anti inflammatory activity. These consequences help in the traditional uses of the plants and in the development of new treatments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gunjan Verma, Vandana Sharma, Ramesh Pareek ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/884 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 17:15:48 +0530 Validated RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide and Losartan Potassium in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/913 <p>A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide and Losartan potassium in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation was carried out using Hypersil C18, 250 ×4.6 mm, 5µm column with mobile phase consisted mixture of Acetonitrile and Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate buffer in the ratio of 40:60 (V/V) delivered at a flow rate of 1.5 mL / min and effluents were monitored at 225 nm. The selected chromatographic conditions were effective separation of these drugs. And the retention times of Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide and Losartan potassium were found to be 1.46, 2.21 and 3.30 min respectively. The proposed method was found to be linear in the range of 50-150 μg/mL,12.5-37.50 μg/mL, and 50-150 μg/mL for Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide and Losartan potassium respectively. The recovery of drugs was found to be 97.56 %, 97.72 % and 98.06 % respectively. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and it was found to be accurate, precise and robust, and it was applied to the estimation of Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide and Losartan potassium in combined tablet dosage form and it can also be used for routine quality control analysis of these drugs in biological samples either alone or in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. M. Eswarudu, P. Sakheena, K. Lahari, P. Srinivasa Babu, M. Chinna Eswaraiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/913 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 17:44:28 +0530 Formulation, Optimised and Evaluation of Mouth dissolving film of Amoxapine http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/885 <p>Amoxapine is orally active, acts by decreasing the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and used for depression. The research work was undertaken to formulate, optimize and evaluation of mouth dissolving film of amoxapine, so that rapid release of drug constituents and give faster action. Mouth dissolving film (MDF) is a better alternative compared to oral disintegrating tablet due to patient compliance. Amoxapinebelongs to Biopharmaceutics Classification System&nbsp; ClassII, means drug have low solubility. The problem is resolved by using Polomer188. MDF prepared by solvent casting method. For preparation of film, hydrophilic polymers were selected as film forming polymers. Different polymers were selected such as different grades of Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulosei.e. E5, E15, E50.Selection of plasticizer was also done and PEG-400 was found best giving better results. It was found that formulation contain desiredphysio-mechanical properties.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>- Depression, Patient Compliance, BCS II, Polomer188, Solvent Casting</p> Anjudip Yadav, Shailendra Tripathi, Vandana Sharma, S. L. Soni, Deeksha Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/885 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 18:03:01 +0530 Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Oxcarbazepine Liquisolid Compacts http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/886 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The solubility and dissolution properties of any drug are fundamental determinants of its oral bioavailability. The dissolution rate of weakly soluble, highly permeable (BCS-II) drugs, such as Oxcarbazepine, be capable of&nbsp; enhanced by use of the liquisolid (LS)technique</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Oxcarbazepine liquid-solid compacts were formulated using PEG-600 as the non-volatile solvent, Avicel 102 as the carrier material, Aerosil 200 as the coating material Sodium starch glycolate as the disintegrant. Various batches of liquisolid compacts were set up by utilizing varied carrier-coating excipient ratio and different concentration of liquid medication. Flow parameters such as bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s Index, Hausner’s Ratio as well as an angle of repose were utilized to test the flowability of the powder mix. The liquid-solid system were made by direct compression strategy and were assessed for tests, for example weight variation, drug content, hardness, thickness, friability, wetting time, breaking down time also as well as the in vitro dissolution studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The liquisolid system showed acceptable micromeritic properties. The tabletting properties of the liquisolid compacts were within the acceptable limits. delivery paces of liquisolid compacts were obviously higher compared with directly compressed tablets, due to expanding wetting properties and surface area of the drug. The liquisolid compacts showed enhanced bioavailability when compared with their conventional formulation</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Liquid-solid tablet was measured as a hopeful system to enhance solubility and dissolution rate of poor-water soluble Oxcarbazepine.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Deeksha Tiwari, Vandana Sharma, S. L Soni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/886 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 18:15:17 +0530 Anti Inflammatory Potential of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Bark In Jaipur Region http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/889 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of moringa oleifera lam. <em>(M.Oleifera L.)</em> bark crude ethanolic extract in regards to phytochemical studies . <strong>Method:</strong> compared tha anti-inflammatory effect of <em>M.Oleifera L</em>. at&nbsp; (300, 200 and&nbsp; 100 mg/kg, p.o) doses with that of standard anti-inflammatory agent like diclofenac sodium at a dose of (10mg/kg, p.o) using carrageenan induced paw edema and egg albumin induced paw edema. <strong>Result:</strong> Hydroalcoholic extract of <em>M.Oleifera L.</em> stem bark at a dose of 300mg/kg p.o and 200mg/kg p.o showed a significant dose dependent as campare to 100mg/kg, further it was compared with the reduction of paw edema against standard drug diclofenac sodium at a dose of 10mg/kg p.o both in carrageenan induced and egg albumin induced paw edema. The decrease in the edema volume was seen over a period of time from 2<sup>nd</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>,&nbsp; and 4<sup>th</sup>hour where the degree of edema was reduce. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> from the above findings it was observed that the hydroalcoholic extract of&nbsp; <em>M.Oleifera L</em>.possess a significant anti-inflammatory activity against the animal model.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nidhi Chauhan, Vandana Sharma, Ramesh Pareek, Ashish Kushwaha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/889 Mon, 01 Mar 2021 06:59:28 +0530 Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Salbutamol Sulphate and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in Oral Liquid Dosage Form http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/878 <p>Pharmaceutical analysis is imported branch of science deals with to check the identity, strength, quality and purity of chemical and herbal compounds. Qualitative analysis of drugs and pharmaceutical compounds.&nbsp; Quantitative analysis is of much importance and done by various methods. One of the most accurate and precise methods is spectrophotometry which comprises the measurement of intensity of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by the compound. Another most popular method of for quantitative analysis is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the present article a RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and ambroxol hydrochloride in oral liquid doses form and validation of the developed method. Developed methods include selection of mobile phase, chromatographic method, and wavelength whereas validation involves the system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity, reproducibility, robustness, specificity and solution stability of the developed method. The result showed that the developed method is the best suited to the simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and ambroxol hydrochloride and validated as per the standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rakesh Kumar, Mukesh Bansal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/878 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 18:42:35 +0530 Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Methionine, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride and Nicotinamide in Combined Dosage Form http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/877 <p>Analytical chemistry is one of the important branches of science which deals with the study of separation, identification and quantification of various natural and chemical compounds. Quantitative analysis is having supremacy from the point of pharmaceutical chemistry. Quantification methods include chromatographic techniques, spectrophotometery, fluorimetery etc. One of the accurate method for quantitative analysis is High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the present manuscript, a reverse phase – HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Methionine, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and Nicotinamide in combined dosage form and validation of the developed method. The development of method includes selection of mobile phase, chromatographic method and wavelength whereas validation involves the parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, Limit of detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), robustness, system suitability of the developed method. The result showed that the developed method is best suited to the simultaneous determination of Methionine, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and Nicotinamide and validated as per standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shipra Saini, Sulekha Mandal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/877 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 18:51:23 +0530 Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Lansoprazole, Clarithromycin and Tinidazole in Combined Dosage Form http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/872 <p>Analytical chemistry is one of the supreme branches of science which deals with the separation, identification and quantification of various natural and chemical compounds. It includes both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Quantitative analysis is having importance from the point of pharmaceutical chemistry. Quantification methods include chromatographic techniques, spectrophotometery, fluorimetery etc. One of the most popular method for quantitative analysis is High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In this article, a reverse phase – HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Lansoprazole, Clarithromycin and Tinidazole in combined dosage form and validation of the developed method. The development of method includes selection of mobile phase, chromatographic method and wavelength whereas validation involves the parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, Limit of detection (LOD), Limit of Quantification (LOQ), robustness, system suitability of the developed method. The result showed that the developed method is best fitted to the simultaneous determination of Lansoprazole, Clarithromycin and Tinidazole and validated as per standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bharat Dadhich, Rakesh Goyal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/872 Sat, 13 Feb 2021 19:07:13 +0530 Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrus Limetta on Wistar Albino Rats Hrishabh Jangid*, Mohammad Mukim, Rahul Ancheria, Ankit Sharma Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota, Rajasthan, India http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/890 <p>The methanolic extract of citrus limetta (MECL) peel was screened for hepatoprotective activity in hepatotoxic wistar albino rats induced via paracetamol (PCM) and carbon tetra chloride (CCL<sub>4</sub>). Hepatoprotective activity of MECL was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as AST (aspartate transaminase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), SGPT (serum glutamine pyruvate transferase), SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase). It was observed that administration of PCM, CCL<sub>4</sub> decrease the level of proteins and increased the level of serum marker enzymes which is an evidence of existence of hepatotoxicity in rats. The present results provide strong evidence that MECL inhibits hepatotoxicity induced by CCL<sub>4</sub> and PCM. The hepatoprotective action was much more significant at the dose of 2ml/kg when compared to 1mg/kg.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hrishabh Jangid, Mohammad Mukim, Rahul Ancheria, Ankit Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/890 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 12:07:39 +0530 The A Research Article on Antistress Activity of Herbal Extract Oil of Piper Methysticum on Wistar Albino http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/892 <p>The research was carried out to determine the antistress activity of piper methysticum and the animal model used was wistar albino due to it’s worldwide acceptability in researches related to psychology .kava (piper methysticum) root&nbsp; extract was used for abundance of kavlactones hence for the sake of study different percentage of suspensions like 4%, 6%, 8%, 12%, 18%, 30% were prepared and diazepam was selected as standard drug.oecd guideline 423 was followed during acute toxicity studies.no symptoms of acute toxicity was seen during 14 days observational period when given a dose of 2000 mg/kg so on this basis two dose level of 200mg/kg and&nbsp; 400 kg were selected for antistress activity.test model selected for antistress activity were&nbsp; forced swim test, tail suspension test and anoxia stress tolerance test.for respective tests a sharp decline in duration of immobility and increase in anoxia stress tolerance was seen.hence we can conclude that piper methysticum can play a significant role in the field of treating stress after futhur&nbsp; extensive clinical research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ankit Sharma, Mohammad Mukim, Rahul Ancheria, Hrishab Jangid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/892 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 12:13:42 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of Montelukast Sodium Oral Dissolving Film http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/893 <p>The preliminary batches were planned for the formulation and development of placebos of fast dissolving film by using solvent casting method. Total 10 formulations were prepared by using concentration of polymer i.e pullulan in different proportion. In formulations F5 to F6 various concentration of pullulan were incorporated as well as in other formulation trails taken with different concentration of different natural i.e Sodium alginate, SSG and synthetic i.e HPMC, eudragit to find out best suitable polymer for the film formation. Among all formulations, formulation F5 was found to be satisfactory. The placebos were evaluated for various parameters such as physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, surface pH and disintegration time. F5 formulation came out with best result after various evaluations and so it was further prepared by incorporating Montelukast Sodium API. This formulation was then evaluated for various parameters along with assay, content uniformity and dissolution. The results obtained from the F5 formulation complied with the specifications given for ODF. A batch to batch was also observed after obtaining the results. Further, various batches were prepared with various concentration of PEG-400 and evaluated. It was observed that the batch with the higher concentrations of PEG-400 retarded release of drug from formulation. In vitro release studies showed that the formulation F5 match with the required dissolution profile, the drug release retarded in F1, F2 and F3 formulations due to different concentration of polymer and plasticizer, which did not match with the required dissolution profile. The in vitro release of formulation F5 was found to be most promising as it was in accordance required dissolution profile.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ashish Sharma, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/893 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 12:20:50 +0530 Antimicrobial Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/924 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of this research was to provide knowledge that <em>Morinda citrifolia L.</em>was not only fruit and the leaves can be used as an antimicrobial. Parts of <em>Morinda citrifolia L.</em>(Noni) such as seeds were proven to be able to inhibit microbial growth. Antimicrobial was substances that inhibit growth or kill other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and rickets.</p> <p>Data Sources Study Selection: The main references used in this review article through trusted sites such as Pubmed, Pubcem, Science Direct, NCBI, Research Gate, Google Scholar, and other published and trustworthy journals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Noni plant (<em>Morinda citrifolia</em> L.) was a medicinal plant that has antimicrobial properties because it contained secondary metabolites of flavonoid and phenol. The fruit and leaves were part of noni plant which has the highest potential for antimicrobial activity. The use of antimicrobial is one way of dealing with infectious diseases. So, the noni plant could be developed as an alternative of herbal product in overcoming the problem of antibiotic resistance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rena Noviana, Anzharni Fajrina, Aried Eriadi, Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/924 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 13:32:32 +0530 Utilization of Natural Dyes Substances for Histological Staining: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/925 <p>Histological staining is one the technical processes in the preparation of tissue samples by coloring using histological staining to assist in the study. Natural dyes as an alternative solution to replace synthetic dyes because it can affect human health such as skin allergies, digestive system and respiratory system. This review article aims to determine the quality of natural dyes used to color tissue in the process of making animal and plant tissue preparations. Some of the plants used as natural dyes, coloring indicates a change in tissue preparations. From some plants used for natural dyes in the histology of animal and plant tissues, chemical compounds contained there in that can provide colors such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthocyanins, betasianins, and curcuminoids. The resulting dye looked good or not is influenced by the pH, concentration, staining time, method and solvent used in the staining.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gita Hartika, Zulharmita Zulharmita, Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/925 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 13:30:32 +0530 A Review: Traditional Use, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Red Betel Leaves (Piper Crocatum Ruiz & Pav) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/926 <p>Red betel leaf (<em>Piper</em> <em>crocatum </em>Ruiz &amp; Pav) is a plant that grows in tropical areas and was previously known as an ornamental plant, but was later used as a medicinal plant. The use of red betel leaf (<em>Piper crocatum </em>Ruiz &amp; Pav) is traditionally beneficial in curing diseases such as thrush and toothache. Meanwhile, red betel leaf decoction, which is antiseptic, can act as a mouthwash, prevent bad breath and eliminate body odor. From chromatography, it is known that red betel leaves contain flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds, tannins, and essential oils. In the use of red betel leaves, it is widely used to get rid of body odor, vaginal discharge, ulcer, fatigue, muscle aches, and to smoothen the skin, as well as for itchy, red eye cleansers, and canker sore. Red betel leaves decoction is also believed to be able to eliminate bad breath in the mouth if used as a mouthwash.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Melani Antika Suri, Zikra Azizah, Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/926 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 13:45:51 +0530 Antibacterial Activity Test of Mangosteen Plants (Garcinia Mangostana L.): A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/927 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bacterial infection was a health problem thathard to overcome, due to the presence of bacterial resistance to current antibacterial drugs. Therefore, the use of herbal antibacterials is an alternative that can be used. Mangosteen (<em>Garciniamangostana</em> L.) is a plant that contains xanthone compounds and its derivatives have antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-HIV activity.Part of the mangosteen was used as a medicinal plant such as bark, fruit peel, fruit, seeds, and leaves.This review aimed to determine the antibacterial effectiveness of the mangosteen and inhibitory diameter that was resulting.</p> <p><strong>Data Collection: </strong>The author was created this article review by conducting literature studies. The works of literature were collected from national and international journals in the last ten years (2010-2020) and pharmaceutical scientific books. The works of literature were collected from trusted online journal sites such as the digital library, PubMed, PubChem, ScienceDirect, NCBI, Elsevier, NCBI, Researchgate, Google Scholar, Springer, and other trusted E-resource with the keyword "mangosteen”, “Garcinia mangostana L”, “antibacterial activity”, and “inhibitor zone”.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>According to literature showed that the mangosteen fruit peel, bark, leaves, seeds and fruit effective as antibacterialfor several types of bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>N-hexane that was extracted from mangosteen peel has potential as an antibacterial activity at a concentration of 15.62 mg/ml and inhibit the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC25923 with an inhibitory diameter of 17mm.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rika Andani, Anzharni Fajrina, Ridho Asra, Aried Eriadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/927 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 13:58:32 +0530 Ameliorative Effects of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Hepatic Diseases in Southern Region of India- A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/912 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Liver is an important part in human beings and plays a major role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics from the body.</p> <p><strong>Selection of Data:</strong> Further, hepatotoxicity is caused by different types of toxic chemicals, such as antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents like paracetamol (C8H9NO2), thioacetamide (C2H5NS), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), silymarin (C25H22O10), ethanol (C2H5OH), and excessive alcohol in taking and microbes are &nbsp;well researched. The markedly available synthetic drugs to treat liver sickness in this condition also cause further damage to the liver. Hence herbal medicines have being become popularize and their utilized is wide-spread. In plant derived drugs have been utilized in the treatment of liver diseases for a long time and to protect a healthy liver. Liver injury induced by toxins is more common now-a-days. Herbal remedies are focused in the pharmaceutical industry to evolve a safe route for liver disorders and which is very low prize and also no side effects compared with synthetic drugs.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hence an attempt has been made to reviewed and compiled the available data on photochemical from medicinal plants that have tested in hepatoprotective models using modern scientific system.&nbsp; For the present investigation the selected plants are <em>&nbsp;Avicennia alba, Anisochilus carnosus Baliospermum montanum, Centella asiatica, Clitoria ternatea, Eclipta alba, Justicia adhatada, Phyllanthus emblica, Pisonia Grandis </em>and&nbsp; <em>Syzgium cumini </em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pugazhendy K, Sasikala P ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/912 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:09:07 +0530 Covid-19: A Pharmacotherapeutic Perspective http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/910 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> COVID-19 disease has been difficult to tackle owing to the lack of typical therapeutic options. Many antivirals, antimalarial, and biologics are being carefully evaluated for treatment. This literature analysis aims to shed light to the ongoing studies concerning treatment possibilities for COVID-19 and assist as a reserve for health experts.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This literature review was done to underline the efficacy and safety of existing treatment alternatives for COVID-19 and the cautious use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> PubMed, Medline, Embase and SCOPUS were meticulously browsed utilizing an amalgamation of the keywords "COVID 19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "treatment." All categories of articles together with clinical guidelines, case-studies and systematic reviews were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Treatments that unswervingly target SARS-CoV-2 are not present so far; however, several antivirals (Remdesivir) and antimalarials (Hydroxychloroquine) have appeared as valuable treatment possibilities. Remdesivir and convalescent plasma may be expected to play a beneficial role in serious patients with respiratory failure. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonists could also be utilized in patients who progress and display evidence of cytokine release syndrome. Corticosteroids need to be avoided lest there is a gripping indication for their usage. Available evidence for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 must be utilized till recognized treatments are derived into reality.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bushra Hasan Khan, Shivangna Singh, Jameel Ahmad, Farida Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/910 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:15:35 +0530 Stem Cells a better way for Treatment: Diabetes http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/911 <p>Insulin-producing cells derived from the stem cell embryonic stem cell&nbsp; and pluripotent stem cell have been long duration to encourage, but evasive treatment far from clinical interpret into type1 diabetes therapy.&nbsp; Although stem cell therapies provide a great opportune time there is also conceivable risk such as teratoma formation to relate with the treatment. Mesenchyme stem stromal cells have due to their modulator effects on immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair been suggested to be used to either halt beta-cell loss during T1D development or be used to protect and support pancreatic islets when transplanted. This review aims to give an overview of the current knowledge of stem cell therapy outcomes in animal models of type-1diabetes and a proposed road map towards the clinical setting with a special focus on the potential risks and hurdles which need to be considered. From a clinical point of view, transplantation of insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells must be performed without immune suppression to be an attractive treatment option.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mamta Kumari, Parmanand Pandey, Anupam Kr Sachan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/911 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:23:04 +0530 Tuberculosis a globalized disease: Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/898 <p>One of the deadliest infectious diseases in the world that causes millions of deaths per year is tuberculosis (TB). In this document we present an overview of TB including pathogenesis, diagnosis and recommendations for treatment. We searched PubMed for related articles on TB in preparation for this post. We have also checked for similar reporting and clinical recommendations on the websites of international organisations such as the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The aim of this paper was to give health staff, policy-makers, patients and the public general education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Richard Owusu Nyarko, Amit Prakash, Nayan Kumar, Purabi Saha, Roshan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/898 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:44:14 +0530 Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): An Overview http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/896 <p>There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and unfold of two019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute metabolism syndrome coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a spread of coronavirus is the family Coronaviridae. The malady is believed to originate from crackers Associate in Nursing was unfold to people through unknown medium in an exceedingly town, China. Severe acute metabolism syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) could also be a very transmissible and infective coronavirus that emerged in late 2019 and has caused an outbreak|avirus|a virulent disease|a pestilence} of acute disease, named, ‘coronavirus malady 2019’ (COVID-19), that threatens human health and public safety. throughout this Review, we have a tendency to to tend to explain the essential medicine of SARS- CoV-2, together with genomic characteristics, and receptor use, lightness its key distinction from antecedent acquainted coronaviruses. we have a tendency to to tend to summarize current data of clinical, medicine, and pathological choices of COVID-19, additionally as recent progress in animal models, and antiviral treatment approach for SARS- CoV-2 infection. we have a tendency to to tend to to boot discuss the potential life hosts and disease origin of this rising virus well.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahendra Saini, Nikhita Parihar, Shankar Lal Soni, Vandana Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/896 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:46:53 +0530