Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:46:40 +0530 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Evaluation of Toxic Effect of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Leaf Extract on Hematological Parameters http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/711 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This current study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> leaf extract (<em>Phaleria macrocarpa</em> (Scheff.) Boerl) on hematology parameters in rats.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> The toxicity of ethanol extract of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> leaf was evaluated by OECD guidelines. The extract at doses of 100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw), control satellite and satellite group dose 1000 mg/kg bw were orally administered to the test animal for 90 days. Hematological parameters were observed for 90 days and 118 days for treatment and satellite group, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> The variable that was intervened in this study was the doses of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> extract.</p> <p>Main outcome measure: The main results in this study were the toxic effect of <em>P. macrocarpa </em>leaf on hematology parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The etanol extract of <em>P. macrocarpa </em>did not cause any changes in hematological parameters, these include red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet, white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils levels as compared to normal control (P&gt;0.05)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The ethanol extract of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> leaf did not cause any toxic effect on hematological parameters for long-term use.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hanif M Q, Yuandani Y, Harahap U ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/711 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Rhizome Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) For Growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/712 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine at what concentration of ethanol extract of rhizome turmeric is active against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Ethanolic extract of rhizome turmeric was tested for phytochemical screening by using standard protocol. Antimicrobial testing was using the diffusion disc method to measure the inhibition zone against the <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em> with various concentration of rhizome turmeric extract (500 mg/mL, 400 mg/mL, 300 mg/mL, 200 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Phytochemical screening showed that ethanolic extract of rhizome turmeric contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and triterpenoid/steroid. The antimicrobial inhibition of ethanol extract of rhizome turmeric against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em> microbia at a concentration of 500 mg/mL had a diameter of 15.7 mm, 15 mm and 15.18 mm with a strong category.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> rhizome turmeric could be use as a novel antimicrobial agent.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gurning Kasta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/712 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:05:12 +0530 Formulation, Characterization and Antioxidant Myricetin Nanophytosome for Topical Delivery http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/718 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Phytosomes are recently introduced drug delivery system and novel botanical formulation to produce lipophilic molecular complex to improve absorption and bioavailability of phytoconstituent. Myricetin is a well-known flavonoid with different biological effects and contributed in food preserving by free radical scavenging activity. However, bioavailability of myricetin is an important limiting factor for its antioxidant activities<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To overcome this limitation, in the present study we aimed to produce myricetin-loaded nano phytosomes to improve its physicochemical stability and bioavailability.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: myricetin-loaded nano phytosome was prepared by using phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH). Myricetin nanophytosomes system was characterized by particle size analyzer, particle size distribution (PDI), encapsulation efficiency and potential antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Results showed that formulation with the myricetin: PC: CH molar ratio of 1: 2: 0.8 had lower particle size (291.11 nm) and higher encapsulation efficiency percent (93%). Morphology analysis showed that myricetin nanophytosome spherical shape. The potential antioxidant data showed that incorporation myricetin in the phospholipid myricetin remained unchanged even after encapsulation of myricetin in binarynanophytosome formulation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Nano phytosomal formulation of myricetin showed promising potential in fortification of nutraceutical with water insoluble antioxidants.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Purnamasari Nur Aini, Dzakwan Muhammad, Pramukantoro Ganet Eko, Mauludin Rachmat, El Fahmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/718 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:06:51 +0530 Detection of Impurities in Bulk Drug and Capsule of Fluconazole http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/717 <p>Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the impurities and their amounts in the fluconazole bulk drug and capsule FLUNACTM (150 mg). Method: HPLC with diode array detector was used to carry out the study. The composition of mobile phase was acetonitrile: water (85:15 %) with flow rate of 0.7 mL/min and detected at 260 ± 1 nm. Results: Two impurities (one is known impurity A and other unknown impurity) were detected in the bulk drug and also in capsule FLUNAC (150mg). The total amount of impurities in fluconazole bulk drug and capsule were 0.368% and 0.392% respectively. Conclusion: The total amount of impurities was less than 1% which is acceptable.&nbsp;</p> Uttam Kumar Sarker, Md. Mahasin Ali, Fatiha Farhana, Md. Atikul Islam, Shifat Kaisar, Mir Misbahuddin, Md. Rabiul Islam, Md. Elias Molla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/717 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:23:43 +0530 Burn Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha indica in Oinment Formulated against Rabbits (Ocyctagus caniculus) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/740 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The purpose of this study was to determine burn wound healing activity of <em>Acalypha indica</em> L. in oinment formulated.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> This study uses an experimental laboratory design. This study used rabbits as test animals induced by burns with hot iron plates on the back. Extract ointment applied to the wound then observed the development of healing.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> The extract was formulated in ointments with concentrations of 3, 5 and 7%. positive control used was ointment containing sesame oil and negative control used is an ointment base.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong> The results showed a concentration of 3% had a slow and low effect, at a concentration of 5% it had a moderate healing phase, and a concentration of 7% had a good healing phase.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The ointments containing <em>Acalypha indica</em> leaf extracts have good activity in healing burns in rabbits.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khairani Fitri, Tetty Noverita Khairani, Fajar Apollo Sinaga, Amenia Gracia Talunohi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/740 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:10:45 +0530 Analysis of Mercury in Fish, North Sumatera Indonesia by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/728 <p>The maximum level of mercury permitted in fish by BPOM RI is 0.5 mg/kg. This study was conducted to determine the level of mercury in fish often consumed in Medan Indonesia. Fish samples were collected from 7 traditional fish market outlets and 1 supermarket in Medan in December 2019. Fish samples were dried using an oven at 103<sup>0</sup>C untill a constant dry weight was attained. Then, the digestionprocess was carried out using concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid. Determination of mercury level was carried out using CV-AAS method with 900 H Perkin Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with MHS-15 (Mercury Hidride System). The results showed that the level of mercury in pelagic fish was found significantly in yellowfin tuna <em>(Thunnusalbacares)</em> of 27.3865 ± 0.3326 µg/kg; mackerel tuna <em>(Euthynnusaffinis)</em> of 17.8570 ± 0.0121 µg/kg; skipjack tuna<em>(Katsuwonuspelamis)</em> of 17.4507 ± 1.5893 µg/kg; spanish mackerel <em>(Scomberomoruscommersonii)</em> of 10.5767 ± 0.1862 µg/kg; grouper <em>(Epinepheusfuscoguttatus)</em> of&nbsp; 9.9736 ± 0.9115 µg/kg; mackerel <em>(Rastreligerkanagurta)</em> of&nbsp; 6.5364 ± 0.1935 µg/kg and dumersal fish were found significantly in red snapper <em>(Lutjanuscampechanus)</em> of 14.0966 ± 0.8555 µg/kg; stingray<em>(Dasyatissp)</em> of 61.3146 ± 0.8149 µg/kg; ariid catfish <em>(Arius thalassinus)</em> of 13.2533 ± 0.7586 µg/kg; black pomfret<em>(Parastromateusniger)</em> of 10.7755 ± 0.4605 µg/kg; sardine<em>(Sardinellasp)</em> of 6.5464 ± 0.1036. The results showed that the larger fish has the higher mercury level. The level of mercury in these analyzed fish samples was below maximum level permitted by BPOM RI.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jhan Saberlan Purba Purba, Jansen Silalahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/728 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:13:00 +0530 Antioxidant activity of Rosa damascene flos ethanol extracts using hydroxyl and nitrite oxide scavenging methods http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/739 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study were to determine antioxidant activity of <em>Rosa damascene flos</em> ethanol extracts.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The ethanol extracts were extracted from the crown of rose and rose base by maceration using ethanol 70% solvent. Antioxidant activity was determined with hydroxyl and nitrite oxide scavenging methods and the IC<sub>50</sub>analyzed using SPSS 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The IC<sub>50</sub>of crown rose ethanol extract (CREE) and rose base ethanol extract (RBEE) on hydroxyl and nitrite oxide scavenging were7.61 ± 0.38μg/mL, 17.55 ± 0.37 μg/mL and were 349,57 ±0,35μg/mL, 54.93 ± 4.49 μg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The crown of rose ethanol extract (CREE) and rose base ethanol extract (RBEE) has activity as antioxidant.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Elfina Br T, Chrismis N G, Linda C, I Nyoman E L ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/739 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:14:49 +0530 In Vitro Assessment of Some Brands of Fluconazole Capsules Marketed in Port Harcourt, Nigeria http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/722 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: A routine <em>in vitro </em>pharmacopeial quality assessment of five brands of fluconazole capsules with label claims of 50.0 mg marketed in Port Harcourt, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain their consistencies.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The brands were procured from various pharmacies in Port Harcourt and coded Fluco-A, Fluco-B, Fluco-C, Fluco-D and Fluco-E. Visual assessments of the samples were carried out besides <em>in vitro</em> quality considerations such as identification of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), capsules uniformity of weight, disintegration, an assay of the total content of fluconazole and dissolution studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Each brand contained fluconazole with relevant product packet information uncompromisingly conspicuous.The label claims for fluconazole contents were satisfactory. The weight variation of the capsulesacross the brands were between 170.25 mg ± 2.25% -333.14 mg ± 1.50 %. Each brand disintegrated within 10 min. Total drug content was within 88.43 ± 0.12% to 102.96 ± 0.53 %.Above 80.0% of fluconazole was released within 30.0 min in the release studies of the respective brands.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results obtained for the capsules uniformity of weight, disintegration time, the total content of the API and the drug release profiles were within acceptable limits of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nwachukwu Nkemakolam, Ugoeze Kenneth C, Kennedy Emeka Oluigbo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/722 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:16:21 +0530 Protective Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Moringa Oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract-Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Wistar Albino Rats http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/749 <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera)</em> is a commonly used medicinal and nutritive plant. The aqueous leaf extract from this plant contains a high concentration of alkaloids and they are toxic to body organs especially the liver leading to hepatotoxicity after long term exposure. However, if N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) is administered together with <em>M. oleifera</em> extract, it may have a hepatotoxic protective effect.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To establish the protective effect of N-Acetyl cysteine against <em>M. oleifera</em> aqueous leaf extract-induced hepatotoxicity in the Wistar albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An experimental laboratory-based study conducted at department of Physiology Makerere University, College of Health Sciences. Three treatment groups of six Wistar albino rats each, were dosed intragastrically once a day for 28 days. Group I; negative control, received 8.05g/kg bwt of <em>M. oleifera </em>extract plus 1ml of normal saline (NS), Group II; test group, received 8.05g/kg bwt of <em>M. oleifera </em>extract plus 50mg/kg of NAC. Group III; positive control, received 750mg/kg bwt of Paracetamol plus 50mg/kg of NAC. On the 14<sup>th</sup> and 29<sup>th</sup> day, three animals selected randomly from each group were sacrificed; blood samples were collected, the liver was harvested for histopathological analysis.&nbsp; Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and total protein levels were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was an increase in serum ALT, AST and ALP levels in the <em>M. oleifera </em>extract plus NS group which was a sign of hepatotoxicity. The <em>M. oleifera </em>extract plus NAC group showed normal serum ALT, AST and ALP levels with no significant changes in the bilirubin (P-value = 0.9089) and total protein levels (P-value = 0.8858).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results have provided evidence that NAC administration with <em>M. oleifera</em> extract effectively prevents the occurrence of <em>M. oleifera</em> leaves xtract- induced hepatotoxicity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Namaganda Agnes, Kasolo N Josephine, Bbosa S. Godfrey, Lukande Robert, Kimuli Ivan, Katamba Godfrey, Muwonge Haruna, Okullo Isaac, Nfambi Joshua ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/749 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:17:39 +0530 Analysis of the Quality of Service on the Level of Satisfaction of the Patient In Rs Umum Bandung and Malahayati Medan in Years 2019 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/750 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to comparing the analysis of the influence of the treatment of disease specialists in the level of satisfaction of outpatient patients at RSU Malahayati Medan and RSU Bandung year 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This research is a descriptive correlation study. Where this research uses a cross-sectional approach i.e. data that concerns free variables or risks and variable binding or variable consequences, will be collected at the same time. That is, each research subject is only observed once and the measurement is done against the status of character or variable subject at the time of the examination, the author wants to know the influence of reliability, responsiveness, appearance, and attention, in providing service in several type B hospitals in North Sumatera year 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients who said the specialist disease in the doctor was reliable as much as 38 people (60.3%), less responsive as many as 40 people (63.5%), attention as much as 51 people (81%) and appearances as many as 51 people (81%).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Variables that affect the satisfaction rate of the outpatient in the RSU Malahayati Medan and RSU Bandung year 2019 is a variable of reliability and variable attention where the dominant variable affects the level of patient satisfaction is variable reliability, while variables that cannot influence is the responsiveness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Afni Basyariah, Sri Lestari Ramadhani Nasution, Ermi Girsang, Ali Napiah Nasution ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/750 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:21:16 +0530 Comparative In Vitro Evaluation Of Different Brands Of Metformin Hydrochloride Film Coated Tablets Marketed In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/746 <p>Metformin hydrochloride is a biguanide class of drug widely used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its oral bioavailability is about 50 to 60 % with a half-life of about 3 h. This study focused on evaluation and comparison of the physicochemical properties of different brands of metformin hydrochloride (500mg) film coated tablets available in drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Some different <em>in vitro</em> tests including hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, dissolution study, and assay were conducted as per United States Pharmacopeia. To compare dissolution profiles of the generic products against the innovator product (product A), a model independent method, similarity factor (f2), was also used.&nbsp; Weight variation result showed that all brand fall within the 5% limit from the average which is acceptable. Disintegration time of less than 15 minutes was observed for all brands. The <em>in</em> <em>vitro</em> drug release study results for the products ranged between 82 and 93% release within 30 minutes which is above 80% limit as per the United States Pharmacopeia requirement. The similarity f2 values for generic products ranged from 53 to 75%. Furthermore, assay value of the studied brands varied from 95.60 to 104.37% which was within standard limit (95-105%). It can be concluded that all brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets met pharmacopoeial specification for the tested parameters of physicochemical properties like weight variation, hardness of tablets, disintegration time, drug release study and assay.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kassa Abatea, Abrham Temesgen, Muluken Nigatu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/746 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:31:41 +0530 Formulation of Ketoprofen Transdermal Solid Dispersion Patch as an Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/760 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to formulate transdermal patches of ketoprofen solid dispersions, determine the effect of propylene glycol on the rate of release of ketoprofen transdermal solid dispersion patches to know the optimum transdermal patch form of a solid dispersion of ketoprofen could provided better analgesic and antiinflammatory effects compared to the trademark ketoprofen gel (Kaltrofen®).</p> <p><strong>Design</strong><strong>:</strong> this research was conducted &nbsp;using a transdermal experiment of dense solid dispersion patches of ketoprofen with variations in the amount of propylene glycol F1 (10%), F2 (20%) and F3(30%) , physicochemical characteristics (organoleptic, fiber, weight uniformity, folding enhancement and development), diffraction patterns (XRD), incompatibility patterns (FTIR), in vitro penetration testing. -vitro, evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> the intervened&nbsp; variable were the in vitro penetration testing. In-vitro, evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of ketoprofen transdermal solid dispersion patch.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study were physicochemical characteristics (organoleptic, fiber, weight uniformity, folding enhancement and development), diffraction patterns (XRD), incompatibility patterns (FTIR), in vitro penetration testing. -vitro, evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: transdermal patches of ketoprofen solid dispersion patches produce white, odorless preparations that have a flat surface, thickness between 0.0242 ± 0.0002 to 0.0269 ± 0.0003, weight uniformity 321.50 ± 0.78 to 381.54 ± 0.60, folding resistance between 375 ± 0.58 to 443 ± 1.53, all formulas already meet the requirements of physicochemical characteristics. F3 ketoprofen transdermal solid dispersion patch had a highest penetration degree and provide better analgesic effects compared to the trademark ketoprofen gel (Kaltrofen®), and there were significant differences between groups (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>it can be concluded that the use of 30% propylene glycol in F3 ketoprofen transdermal solid dispersion patch affects the rate of drug release and&nbsp; had a better anti-inflammatory effect compared to the trademark ketoprofen gel (Kaltrofen®).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fitri Yani, Anayanti Arianto, Rosidah Noersal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/760 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 17:28:08 +0530 In Vitro Test of Antibacterial Ethanol Extract, n-Hexane Fraction and Ethyl acetate Fraction of Sungkai Leaf (Peronema cenescens) Against Salmonella typhi http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/757 <p><strong>Object: </strong>This study aims to look at the class of compounds and the comparison of the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract, n-hexane fraction and ethyl acetate of Sungkai leaves against Salmonella typhi.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Study included phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial testing of ethanol extract, n-hexane fraction and ethyl acetate of Sungkai leaves against Salmonella typhi.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> obtained groups of chemical compounds alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, tannins and triterpenoids/steroids on Sungkai leaf powder. Ethanol extract of Sungkai leaves obtained resistance at a concentration of 20% by 12.7 mm, and inhibition of the ethyl acetate fraction at a concentration of 20% of 14.8 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ethyl acetate fraction of Sungkai leaves have antibacterial properties against S. typhi which is greater than ethanol extract and hexane fraction of leaf heal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sitepu Nadroh Br. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/757 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 Phytochemical Screening and Antidiabetic Activity Test of Extracts and Fractions of Lactuca Indica (L.) In Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/759 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic effect of ethanol extract and Lactuca indica leaf fraction to determine the effective dose of mice induced with streptozotocin compared with metformin.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> The design of this study was experimental in which the extraction and fraction of Lactuca indica leaves were tested for the value of decreasing blood glucose levels of mice after induction of streptozotocin. Antidiabetic activity tests were divided into 12 groups. Group I (baseline) group II (negative control) were given CMC 0.5%, Group III (positive control) were given metformin 65 mg/kg BW, while Groups IV to XII were given Lactuca indica leaf extract and fractions at their respective doses -each 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg BW</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> The variable that was intervened in this study was the concentration of extract used</p> <p>Main outcome measure: The main measurement results in this study were to determine extracts and fractions that we're able to reduce blood glucose levels in mice.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The antidiabetic effect of Lactuca indica leaves shows that EELL, EAFLL and NHFLL have antidiabetic effects, this is supported by the chemical content contained in the extracts, namely flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and triterpenoids/steroids. The most effective activity to reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced mice is EAFLL 100 mg/kg BW</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ethyl acetate fraction of Lactuca indica leaves has an effective antidiabetic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW has given antidiabetic activity in mice induced by STZ, on the 9th day BGL mice have dropped below 120 mg/dl.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tamba Rosanto, Nainggolan Marline, Rosidah Noersal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/759 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of Vanishing Herbal Cream of Crude Drugs http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/725 <p>The purpose of the present research work was to formulate and evaluate vanishing herbal cream. Herbal creams offer several advantages over other creams. The majority of existing creams which has prepared from drugs of synthetic origin and give extras fairness to face, but it has several side effects such as itching or several allergic reactions. Herbal creams do not have any of these side effects, without side effects it gives the fairness look to skin. Method carried out to prepare herbal cream was very simple. Firstly, oil phase was prepared, mixture of stearic acid (17%), potassium hydroxide (0.5%), sodium carbonate (0.5%) were melted at 70<sup>0</sup>C. Secondly aqueous phase was prepared, mixture of alcoholic extract of crude drugs, including C. officinalis and A.indica, Turmeric, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, are commercially available as extracts and in different formulation to be used either for cosmetic purposes or for medical use. Glycerin (6%), perfume (0.5%), water (71%) heated at 70<sup>O</sup> c. Then aqueous phase was added into the oil phase at 70<sup>O</sup> c with continuous stirring. Now, once the transfer was completed it was allowed to come at room temperature all the while being stirred. Perfume was added at last just before the finished product was transferred to suitable container. The above prepared herbal cream was evaluated. The physical parameters such as pH, homogeneity by visual and by touch, appearance, wash ability, consistency, Patch test, irritancy test accelerated stability studies, type of smear were determined. Further studies are needed to investigate this formulation for its performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shinde Prajakta, Khule Shahu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/725 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 Astrological Parlance of Macro and Micro Nutrients http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/714 <p>The dietary minerals are astro-elements . They maintain normal biochemical physiology and anatomical strength. Their deficiencies under unfavorable planetary configurations cause health-maladies.</p> Rajendra Singh Pawar, Mayank Dimri, Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/714 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 22:46:00 +0530 Histopathological Changes in the Spleen of Swiss albino Mice after the Combined Exposure of Radiation and Cadmium http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/742 <p>With the technological advancement and diversification of industries, combined with specialization in all fields, the volume and complexity of metals is also increasing day by day. Interaction of metals with other agents is an important aspect as both can interact in a “synergistic” or “additive synergistic” manner, further aggravating the situation. In the present study, combined effect of radiation and cadmium on spleen of mice has been investigated. For the experiment, adult, healthy male Swiss albino mice were exposed to different doses of radiation and also fed with the aqueous solution of CdCl<sub>2</sub> which was prepared by dissolving 20 mg of cadmium chloride in 1000 ml of glass distilled water, thus giving a concentration of 20 ppm and then administered orally <em>ad libitum</em> in drinking water continuously, till the end of the experiment. Animals were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post- interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days. Spleen was taken out, weighed, fixed in Bouin’s fluid, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin wax. Transverse sections were cut at 5µ from middle part of the tissue and stained with Harri’s haematoxylin-eosin stain for histopathological studies. Pathological changes after combined exposure in the present investigation depends upon the total dose of radiation provided i.e. higher the dose, higher the damage. Most striking histopathological change in the spleen was loss of lymphoid structure, inflammation, fibrous tissue proliferation, pyknosis, necrosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis.&nbsp;</p> Jaishree Daverey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/742 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 22:47:51 +0530 Evaluation of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Pyretic Activity of Fruit of Garcenia Padunculata http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/751 <p>Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the anti-pyretic and anti-oxidant activity of fruits of <em>Garcinia pedunculata</em><strong>. </strong>The fruit of <em>G. pedunculata</em>was collected from Shillong, Meghalaya and extraction is done by using methanol as a solvent. The methanol extract shows the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloids, phenol and flavonoids. Acute anti-pyretic activity for the extract was investigated in pyrexia rat. Temperature level was determined after 1hours, 4 hours, 8 hours and 12 hours after giving the extract dose of 100mg/kg and200mg/kg body weight, and it was found to produce a significant reduce in fever. DPPH radical scavenging activity (<em>In-vitro </em>anti-oxidant activity of <em>G. pedunculata</em>) of methanolic extract shows 38.31 as IC<sub>50 </sub>(µg/ml) whereas Ascorbic acid as standard in the same concentration shows34.81 IC<sub>50 </sub>(µg/ml). The obtained result justified the traditional use of <em>G. pedunculata</em> as anti-pyretic and antioxidant purpose.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Basak Mrinmoy, Laskar Ahmed Moksood, Goswami Priyanka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/751 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 22:49:54 +0530 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Gum Damar Based Sustained Release Matrix Tablet of Metoprolol Succinate http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/752 <p><strong>Background:</strong> An oral dosage form containing sustained released matrix tablet used the natural polymer in the replacement of synthetic polymer.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To prepare sustained release matrix tablet using natural polymer damar &amp; drug Metoprolol Succinate.</p> <p>Material and method: Metoprolol Succinate using Gum Damar as release retardant were prepared by wet granulation technique using 2<sup>3 </sup>factorial design with the quantity of gum damar, concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose&amp; dicalcium phosphate (DCP) as variables.&nbsp; Matrix tablets were prepared using different strengths of GD (10% to 30% w/w) with respect to total tablet weight and two different excipients DCP &amp; microcrystalline cellulose as a diluents. The physicochemical properties such as hardness, thickness, friability, uniformity of weight and the drug content of the formulated tablets were estimated. The physico-chemical properties gum Damar was evaluated for its oral toxicity. Acute oral toxicity study was carried out according to OECD guideline 425 in the albino mice and study revealed that gum was nontoxic.</p> <p><strong>Result &amp; discussion:</strong> Developed sustained released matrix tablet posses hardness of 4.93 ± 0.25, Thickness of 4.74 ± 0.15, Content Uniformity (%) of 98.78 ± 0.52, Weight variation of 248.51 ± 2.12,Friability (%w/w) of 0.41 ± 0.024, In vitro drug release was found to be 95 ± 0.84 % in 12 hrs time, DSC thermogram study sharp endothermic peak was observed.The kinetics of release of Metoprolol Succinate was found diffusion. In vivo oral toxicity study showed no animal was died during study and it was observed that gum is nontoxic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A systematic study revealed that by selecting a suitable composition of Damar gum &amp; dicalcium phosphate as a diluent, the desired dissolution profile could be achieved. The mechanism of drug released was found to be diffusion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:-&nbsp;</p> Nilima Thombre, Archana Aher, Pranali Shimpi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/752 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 22:52:21 +0530 Cytotoxicity Studies on Naproxen and Piroxicam Nanoformulations http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/754 <p>Caco-2 cells were used as <em>in vitro </em>models to assess the cell viability characteristics of the carriers Soluplus®, Gelucire 50/13 and PVP K25 and the nanoformulations of Naproxen and Piroxicam. The assessment of cell viability was done using the tetrazolium salt based MTT assay. Gelucire 50/13 and its NFs were observed to have slightly higher cytotoxicity than PVP and Soluplus® and their respective NFs. All the NFs were observed to follow the cytotoxicity trend of the polymers. Our results show that no significant decrease in cell viability was seen until 0.01% concentration of Gelucire 50/13 for 12-h exposure. The NFs as well as the polymers alone had no significant effect on the viability of Caco-2 cells below 0.01% concentrations. The intestine has a protective mucous layer, whereas the cell culture monolayers do not. The intestinal tissues also have more capacity to recover from trauma than the cultured cells. Hence the present NFs can be expected to show lesser cytotoxicity when subjected to<em> in vivo</em> studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sandeep Patnaik, K Madhusudhana Rao, Vijay Sai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/754 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 22:55:08 +0530 Method Development and Validation of A Novel Anti-Depressant Bupropion by RP-HPLC http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/720 <p>A speedy, simple and precise RP-HPLC process was developed for the estimation of novel antidepressant drug bupropion with Waters X – Bridge C-18 5µm, 4.6 X 150 mm columnusing mobile phase Acetonitrile: Ammonium bicarbonate (5mM) pH-9 adjusted with 1% Ammonium hydroxide (50:50, %v/v).The flow rate was 1 ml/min and quantification was done by PDA detector at wavelength254nm.The Bupropion eluted from the column in 5.194 min. The validation was carried out in the light of ICH guidelines with respect to parameters linearity, specificity, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The proposed method showed linearity in the concentration range of 50 to 250 ppm for Bupropion. The linear regression equation of Bupropion was found to be y = 6E+06x + 91344 and correlation coefficient value was found to be 0.997 indicating a high degree of linearity for the drug. The limit of detection<strong> (</strong>LOD) of bupropion was 0.5 ppm and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.0 ppm. The low values of %recovery and %C.V. showed that the method is precise within the acceptance limit of 5% (according to ICH guidelines).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anil Kumar, Dilip Agarwal, Mukesh Bansal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/720 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 14:04:03 +0530 Design, Development and Evaluation of Gliclazide Tablets for Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/736 <p>The goal of the present work was to formulate the oral tablets of gliclazide for non-insulin dependent diabetes and provide a dosage form for prolonged period of time, in order to improve efficacy, reduce the frequency of total dose and better patient compliance. The powders were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. All the tests revealed that powders showed excellent flow properties. The resulting tablets were evaluated for thickness, diameter, and uniformity of weight test, hardness, friability and drug content. In-vitro release of drug was performed using 7.4 pH phosphate buffers and dissolution was done. All the tablet formulations showed acceptable pharmacological properties and complied with pharmacopoeias standards.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vikas Dave, Amit Jain, Dilip Agarawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/736 Tue, 07 Jul 2020 14:01:03 +0530 Critical Analysis of Covid-19 in Sikkim as On http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/716 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The goal of this current short communication research was to critically analysis and systematically collect data during this pandemic situation, government strategies and their implementation to counter the pandemic virus-Novel COVID-19 within the Sikkim state and its border areas.<strong> Methods:</strong> It highlighted data obtained by the different agencies prvided by government and independent media houses. Here we highlighted data focused on factors such Home quarantin, Facility Quarantine, Triage facility, details of patients admitted, &nbsp;Logistic supplies and details of test for COVID-19. <strong>Result:</strong> Total cumulatative number of passengers screened were 6,03,370 at the major entrance(Rangpo check post), persons in home quarantine, Triage facility, total number of sample sent for examination and total number of sample found positive and found negative were 2954, 2, 59, 0 and 59 respectively till dated:11/04.2020. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> With the State Government's bold move towards mandatory quarantine of the population inside the state for total 40 days lockdown (including both 1st phase and 2nd phase). Sikkim reports zero COVID-19 positive cases as on 19/04/2020<strong>. </strong>These statistics are first of its kind for the communication and to keep the scientific evidence for future knowledge.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sonam Bhutia, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/716 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 Comparison Study of Various Nano Technology Formulation of Curcumin in Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/743 <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive deterioration affecting day to day living and behavioural activities. It is commonest cause of senile and pre-senile dementia. In Alzheimer’s disease, a peptide referred as amyloid beta aggregates (oligomers), and accumulates in the brain to form deposits called as amyloid plaques. According to the world health organization (WHO), 5% of men and 6% of women of above 60 years are victims with Alzheimer’s type dementia globally. In India prevalence of dementia is 33.6%, of which AD contributes approximately 54% and vascular dementia constitutes approximately 39%. Patients with the prolonged use of some Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs such as ibuprofen have lower risk of developing the symptoms of AD; however the chronic use of NSAID can produce a toxic effect on the kidney, liver and GI tract. Recent studies have demonstrated that a curcumin delivery system based on nanoscience and nanotechnology increases the therapeutic potential of this compound. Specifically, several nano-sized carriers such as phospholipid vesicles (liposomes), micelles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, emulsions, proteins and other molecular complexes have been developed for the efficient delivery of curcumin. Nano particles have demonstrated the enhanced Bioavailability of curcumin including circulation time in the blood. Various nano technology drug delivery system of curcumin showed increased Bio accessibility during treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahaveer Singh, Kushali D, Vinay C H ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/743 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 22:59:00 +0530 Spherical Crystallization: A Tool to Improve the Physicochemical Properties of APIs http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/727 <p class="Default" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: 'Bookman Old Style','serif';">A greater challenge in solid dosage formulation is the development of spherical agglomerates which increases the solubility and bioavailability of the drug. Spherical crystallization is “An agglomeration process that transforms crystals directly into compact spherical forms during the crystallization process.” Spherical crystallization is the novel agglomeration technique that can transform directly the fine crystals produced in the crystallization process into a spherical shape. Direct Compression of powders is simple and easy way of making tablets. In direct compression of Good Compressibility and flowability plays a major role. Spherical crystallization methods are very useful methods in which the drug crystals are modified using different solvents to directly compressible agglomerates. which cost effective and time saving. The different Techniques discussed are Crystallization method, Solvent crystallization method, Quasi- emulsion diffusion method, Ammonia Diffusion method, neutralization method, and solvent agglomeration technique. This article gives a detailed and comprehensive review about different techniques, its advantages, mechanism and application of Spherical agglomeration Technique along with its Evaluation and Characterization methods.</span></p> <p class="Default" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> R. R Thenge, M P Chandak, V. S Adhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/727 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:01:08 +0530 An Integrative Medicine Is Prudential Hope for Covid-19 Therapeutics http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/731 <p>The human body is an integrated system. The prudential co- operation of antiviral herbs, vitamins and homeopathic products are economically feasible offer of complementary medicine to COVID-19 therapeutics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank dimri, Rajendra Singh Pawar, Virbal Singh Rajwar, Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/731 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:02:37 +0530 Psychological Issues In Covid 19 Outbreak - Ayurvedic Approach http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/713 <p>Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) is a newly revealed infectious disease declared as pandemic by WHO. Through its fast spreading nature it created an alarming situation throughout the globe. The only possible way to control the spread is to break the chain of transmission by keeping social distancing along with maintaining strict personal hygiene. A complete lockdown was the effective method chosen by the authorities in such a situation. The panic situation created by the disease along with the unfamiliar way of conduct imposed several psychological impacts on human life. Many can’t cope up with the situation on their own and are in need of an intervention such as Psychological First Aid. Fear, anxiety, future concerns, interpersonal relationships issues, behavioural issues, domestic abuses, separation anxiety are a few among the psychological issues reported. A well explained modality of psychotherapy mentioned in Ayurveda i.e; Satvavajaya chikitsa can be adopted in such situations. Jnana (knowledge of self), Vijnana (scientific reasoning), Dhairya (determination or patience), Smrithi (application of recollections or memory) and Samadhi (attaining a stable state of mind) are the steps of this management which are applicable in any psychological issues, including that resulting from COVID as well. Considering the severity of the symptoms, medical management can also be recommended. By adopting such measures mentioned in the Ayurvedic science, we can hope to provide relief to the affected and also to help them to physical and mental wellbeing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vidhya M Sanker, Jithesh Madhvan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/713 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:04:15 +0530 Model of Anti-Covid-19 Pharmacon http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/745 <p>COVID-19 pandemic opens multiple opportunities for innovations in the drug –design. Combinational therapeutics and renewal of orphan drugs as antivirals. The drugs of pharmacological diversity may be tomorrow of viral replication blockers. A model of polyactive pharmacon is suggested for hybridizing structural moieties of virucidal relevance.</p> Mayank dimri, Virbal Singh Rajwar, Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/745 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:05:38 +0530 Air Pollution a Major Health Hazard In Future http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/729 <p>Population, pollution and poverty are the major problems faced by the globe. These problems are interconnected with each other. Population is the major problem that leads to other problems. The population explosion along with urbanization and industrialization has greatly increased the intensity of environmental pollution. More than two million annual deaths and billions of cases of diseases are attributed to pollution. All over the world, people experience the negative effects of environmental degradation ecosystems decline, including water shortage, fisheries depletion, natural disasters due to deforestation and unsafe management and disposal of toxic and dangerous wastes and products. Indigenous peoples suffer directly from the degradation of the ecosystems that they rely upon for their livelihoods. Climate change is exacerbating many of these negative effects of environmental degradation on human health and wellbeing and is also causing new ones, including an increase in extreme weather events such as hot, cold spells of temperature or wet or dry spells of rainfall or cyclones or floods. Last year floods in States of Kerala and Karnataka were also attributed to climatic changes.&nbsp; Recent Delhi climatic conditions are also very alarming. The above facts clearly show the close link between the environment and the enjoyment of human rights, and justify an integrated approach to environment and human rights.&nbsp; The good practices were collected at the international, national and regional levels in collaboration through regional/sub-regional consultations as well as questionnaires and&nbsp;surveys Environmental factors must be favorable for the existence and development of living organisms. It is prime responsibility of human to protect, preserve and to sustain nature for the well being of every organism on this earth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> P. Giridhar, S. R. K. Neeraja ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/729 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:06:54 +0530 Review on Liposome as Novel Approach for Cancer Therapy http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/724 <p>The main objective is to study the importance of liposome in drug targeting in cancer cells andgo through various research work going through on liposome. The importance of liposomes to study the flexibility to couple with the specific ligands toachieve active targeting. Cancer can be treated by surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cell anywhere in a body. The abnormal cells aretermed cancer cells, malignant cells, or tumor cells. There were 14.1 million new cancer cases, 8.2 million cancer deaths and 32.6 million people living with cancer (within 5 years of diagnosis) in 2018 worldwide. 57% (8 million) of new cancer cases, 65% (5.3 million) of the cancer deaths and 48% (15.6 million) of the 5-year prevalent cancer cases occurred in the less developed regions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lodhi Devendra Singh, Kuldeep Ganju, Ramkumar Rajpoot ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/724 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:10:03 +0530 Duchene Muscular Dystrophy: Pathogenesis, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis Management to Therapy. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/733 <p>Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular inherited disease which deal with X-linked occurs due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. The characterisation achieved by progressive muscle weakness in all our the body specially in legs and arms and wasting due to the absence of dystrophin protein which further causes degeneration of different types of muscules such as skeletal and cardiac. Gene mutation is one of the major causes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy located in cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. The diagnosis can be start up with careful review of the physical condition, history and examination of body organs and developmental delay, proximal weakness in muscules, and elevated biochemical compound serum creatine kinase, plus other confirmatory test like muscle biopsy or genetic testing. To improve the life expectancy of patient the early use of exercises, diet &amp; nutrition management and other supportive strategies has been implemented. Moreover, uncontrolled condition can be treated with gene therapy with the use of plasmids or viruses, mutations and short DNA fragments can be corrected, oligonucleotides are first line treatment for exon skipping of mutations. Myoblasts or stem cells replacement therapy can be apply to reproduction of muscules.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bharti Sharma, Savita Devi, Kamaldeep Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/733 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 A Review on 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) in India http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/744 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The outbreak of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has been declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11<sup>th</sup> of 2020. Novel Coronavirus infection mediated pandemic started in China in December 2019 and is still killing 1000s of people throughout the world. The second most populous country, India too is fighting against this infectious disease. The country is taking effective measures to curb the pandemic by exerting extensive campaigning on sanitation and strict social distancing measures to quell the explosion of the infection rate.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Treatment:</strong> No drugs are currently approved for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), although some have been tried. In view of recent studies and discussion on tested drugs on COVID-19 patients of India, I aimed to review existing literature and relevant websites regarding these drugs used in India including allopathic, plasma therapy,Ayurvedic and homeopathic medication.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pawan Kumar Mahawar, Abhay Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/744 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:14:35 +0530 A Review on Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) & Its Preventive Management http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/723 <p>At the end of 2019 a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome expanded globally from Wuhan, China. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the SARS-Cov-2 virus a global pandemic. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 can attack lung cells because there are many conserved receptor entries, namely Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2. The presence of this virus in host cells will initiate various protective responses leading to pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. This review aimed to provide an overview related to this Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and future perspective.&nbsp; We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase and Scopus databases for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Full texts were retrieved, analyzed and developed into an easy-to-understand review. Although only when the pandemic ends it will be possible to assess the full health, social and economic impact of this global disaster, this review represents a picture of the current state of the art. In particular, we focus on public health impact, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations, diagnosis, case management, emergency response and preparedness. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) has formulated guidelines, advisories for social distancing protocol, diagnosis, management, do’s and don’ts and other reliable material.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vijay Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/723 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:17:03 +0530 A Review on Biological Activity of Heterocyclic Nucleus Carbazole http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/708 <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive deterioration affecting day to day living and behavioural activities. It is commonest cause of senile and pre-senile dementia. In Alzheimer’s disease, a peptide referred as amyloid beta aggregates (oligomers), and accumulates in the brain to form deposits called as amyloid plaques. According to the world health organization (WHO), 5% of men and 6% of women of above 60 years are victims with Alzheimer’s type dementia globally. In India prevalence of dementia is 33.6%, of which AD contributes approximately 54% and vascular dementia constitutes approximately 39%. Patients with the prolonged use of some Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs such as ibuprofen have lower risk of developing the symptoms of AD; however the chronic use of NSAID can produce a toxic effect on the kidney, liver and GI tract. Recent studies have demonstrated that a curcumin delivery system based on nanoscience and nanotechnology increases the therapeutic potential of this compound. Specifically, several nano-sized carriers such as phospholipid vesicles (liposomes), micelles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, emulsions, proteins and other molecular complexes have been developed for the efficient delivery of curcumin. Nano particles have demonstrated the enhanced Bioavailability of curcumin including circulation time in the blood. Various nano technology drug delivery system of curcumin showed increased Bio accessibility during treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Monika Meghani, Pawan Kumar Mahawar, Kapil Sharma, Gurvindar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/708 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:18:37 +0530 A Review on Medicinal Plants of North Eastern Region with Potential Antifertility Activity http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/762 <p>The increase in population is becoming a comprehensive problem, causing much pressure on economic, social and natural assets. Oral contraceptive agents have improved the rate of infertility but their unusual side effects limit the use. Current antifertility therapy lacks satisfactory success due to this adverse effect; hence, patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine for anti-fertility action. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for anti-fertility action. This review reveals that some plants and their part used having anti-fertility action, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal anti-fertility formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased. The aim of this review is to highlight the work on anti-fertility of plant origin. For women who can't use modern forms of contraception due to adverse effect or other reasons, therefore herbs can offer alternatives and reducing fertility would be better than other contraceptives. This article may help investigators to identify medicinal plants responsible for anti-fertility activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Priyanka Goswami, Moksood Ahmed Laskar, Mrinmoy Basak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/762 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:20:55 +0530 A Scientific Update on Juglans Regia Linn. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/741 <p>Medicinal herbs having a great role in human health care and welfare services. These herbs widely used in Ayurveda, Homeopathic and Allopathic system having various therapeutic properties. Walnut (<em>Juglans regia</em> L.) are the plants belonging to the family <em>Juglandaceae</em> commonly known as Akhrot. It is widely distributed in China, United State, Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand. It has different varieties such as Black walnut, English/Persian walnut, butternut/white walnut. <em>J.regia</em> L. have many marketed formulations such as Topical formulations like Walnut oil, Face wash, Exfoliating scrub, Soap, Shampoo, Hair color and Oral formulations like capsules, tinctures, dilutions, shell powder. Chemical study reveals that <em>J.regia</em> L. contains Juglone, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Polyphenols, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Oleic acids, Linoleic acids, Proteins, Napthaquinones, Ascorbic acid, Sitosterol, Tannins. Walnut contains different nutritional components like Carbohydrates, Proteins, Dietary fibres, Iron, Phosphorus, vitamin E &amp; C. This plant possess beneficial effects include Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Antidiabetic, Anthelmintic, Antiinflammatory, Antidepressant, Hepatoprotective, Antiulcer, Antiageing and Hypocholestermic activity and other therapeutic activities. It is believed to be used in Dental plaque, Gingivitis, Oral hygiene, Eczema, Hemorrhoids, Burns, Blood Purifier, Dyeing or Colorant, Antiseptic and Astringent. In the present study, Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological properties of <em>J.regia</em> L. have been discussed. This review highlights the various Ethanobotanical and traditional uses as well as Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological report on <em>J.regia</em> L.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gunjan Verma, Vandana Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/741 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:23:51 +0530 Electrospinning Nanotechnology-A Robust Method for Preparation of Nanofibers for Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Application. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/747 <p>Nanotechnology has evolved as a preferred choice in current research arena due to the advantages offered by it. The current research in pharmaceutical development is all about exploring and/or adopting different approaches for preparation of nanostructured drug delivery systems. Electrospinning nanotechnology has made its mark as a technology of choice for preparation of nanofibers for different applications. Electrospinning is a novel, robust and efficient fabrication process that is widely accepted and used to assemble nanofibers with distinct features such as length of several kilometers and diameter less than 300 nm. One of the most striking features of nanofibers is that they provide exceptionally high surface area-to-volume ratio and high porosity, making them a robust and attractive candidate for many advanced applications. Many researchers working on development of medicinal and pharmaceutical product design and development have reported their studies indicating successful implementation of electrospinning nanotechnology for preparation of nanofibers with distinct medicinal and pharmaceutical drug delivery applications. Authors of this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of electrospinning method for preparation of nanofibers with respect to theoretical principle, mechanics of electrospinning, critical process parameters, polymers and drug loaded nanofibers incorporated in different drug delivery systems for various pharmaceutical application.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhadarge Meghana, Dhas Umesh, Shirode Abhay, Kadam Vilasrao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/747 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:25:51 +0530 A Technical Review: Solid- Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN), Their Characteristics and Their Preparation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/764 <p>Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, clinical medicine and research as well as in other varied sciences. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for secondary and tertiary levels of drug targeting. Hence, solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence have attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their advantages, limitations and their possible remedies. The different types of nanocarriers which were based on solid lipid like solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, lipid drug conjugates are discussed with their structural differences. Different production methods which are suitable for large scale production and applications of solid lipid nanoparticles are described. Appropriate analytical techniques for characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles like photon correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry are highlighted. Aspects of solid lipid nanoparticles route of administration and their biodistribution are also incorporated. If appropriately investigated,solid lipid nanoparticles may open new vistas in therapy of complex diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sunirmal Bhattacharjee, Rabindra Debnath, Sinha Ashutosh Kumar, Arpan Saha, Surajit Saha, Sujata Debnath ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/764 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:27:27 +0530 A Review on Pharmacovigilance Process In India http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/735 <p>Peoples are using more potent drugs with various medical conditions. pharmacovigilance helps in safe and convenient use of pharmaceutical drugs. Voluntary recording of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a chief component of pharmacovigilance. Adverse drug reactions have become a dominant health related problems in developing countries like India. The main objective of pharmacovigilance is the assessment of benefit-risk profile of drug for better potency and safety in patients. In terms of volume India pharmaceutical industries is third largest in the world so India has a core of clinical research and drug design &amp; development. This review article explains the need of pharmacovigilance in pharma companies, the growth of pharmacovigilance in different centuries and current status of pharmacovigilance in the country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Preti Mishra, Pawan Upadhyay, Ravi Rawat, Tajamul Ashraf dar, Kapil Dev, Nidhi Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/735 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:30:24 +0530 Emulgel: A Topical Preparation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/765 <p>Emulgel is an emerging topical drug formulation which is becoming increasingly popular due to its advantages over the conventional topical preparations. The emulgel is a combination of an emulsion and a gel and thus has a dual release control system. Its biggest and most favorable advantage has been the ability to incorporate hydrophobic drugs, thus making it emerge as a more popular choice these days. The emulgel is also greaseless, transparent; it can be easily spread and removed, has a long shelf- life, is thixotropic and is also pleasant looking. The emulgel is turning out be a preferred choice for cosmetic and dermatological preparations and its use and application will accelerate in the coming future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nikhita Parihar, Mahendra Saini, Shankar Lal Soni, Vandana Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/765 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:32:19 +0530 A Review on Self Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery System: An Approach to Enhance the Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water Soluble Drug http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/766 <p>Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery framework is the one of the methodology for improving the solvency of the hydrophobic medication. The medications which are insoluble in water can be formulated in this technique by solubilizing it in the lipid vehicle to absorb through the membrane. The lipid and surfactants are utilized to build the solvency of the drug and improve absorption. This improves the dissolution rate of the drug by expanding its solubility. A large number of the obstacles and arrangements are depicted in this article. This system picked up consideration as it likewise improves the bioavailability of the drug. This article has total survey about SMEDDS for present work and for future viewpoint too.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mamta Patil, Shobha Palde, Amol Deshmukh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/766 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:04:02 +0530 Farmer’s Lungs Disease: It’s Take A Breath Away! http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/767 <p>Farmers were evaluated for the presence of farmer’s lung disease by serologic methods and by clinical histories. Farmer’s&nbsp; lung&nbsp; disease&nbsp; (FLD)&nbsp; is&nbsp; a&nbsp; form&nbsp; of&nbsp; hypersensitivity&nbsp; pneumonitis&nbsp; (HP)&nbsp; caused&nbsp; by&nbsp; inhaling&nbsp; microorganisms&nbsp; from&nbsp; hay&nbsp; or&nbsp; grain&nbsp; stored&nbsp; in&nbsp; conditions&nbsp; of&nbsp; high&nbsp; humidity&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; agricultural&nbsp; workplace. The&nbsp; epidemiology&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; disease &nbsp;is&nbsp; not&nbsp; well&nbsp; known,&nbsp; and&nbsp; is&nbsp; based&nbsp; on&nbsp; studies&nbsp; conducted&nbsp; by&nbsp; Central European&nbsp; and&nbsp; Asian&nbsp; groups. The&nbsp; clinical&nbsp; presentation&nbsp; may&nbsp; vary,&nbsp; differentiating&nbsp; the&nbsp; chronic&nbsp; (exposure&nbsp; to&nbsp; lower&nbsp; concentrations&nbsp; of the&nbsp; antigen&nbsp; over&nbsp; a&nbsp; longer&nbsp; period&nbsp; time)&nbsp; and&nbsp; the&nbsp; acute&nbsp; forms&nbsp; (after&nbsp; exposure&nbsp; to&nbsp; high&nbsp; concentrations&nbsp; of the&nbsp; antigen). It&nbsp; is&nbsp; more common&nbsp; in&nbsp; middle-aged&nbsp; men,&nbsp; although&nbsp; this&nbsp; probably&nbsp; reflects&nbsp; differences&nbsp; in&nbsp; exposure&nbsp; levels.&nbsp; It&nbsp; is&nbsp; also&nbsp; more&nbsp; common&nbsp; in&nbsp; non-smokers, probably&nbsp; because&nbsp; tobacco&nbsp; reduces&nbsp; the&nbsp; IgG&nbsp; response&nbsp; to&nbsp; inhaled antigens,&nbsp; affects&nbsp; cytokine&nbsp; production,&nbsp; and&nbsp; alters&nbsp; macrophage function. The etiology of the disease is clear - the inhalation of mouldy hay dust - and much can be done to prevent it ifthis is borne in mind. Mouldy hay dust is a very complex material consisting of innumerable fungal spores, hyphae and bacteria and fragments of vegetable matter. The treatment of FLD is based mainly on avoiding exposure to the antigen. This is the only measure that has been shown to delay disease progression. Corticosteroids are traditionally recommended in patients with impaired lung function and beta agonist and alpha blockers are also helpful in the treatment of disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dolat Singh, Sankar Lal Soni, Vandana sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/767 Mon, 15 Jun 2020 23:35:39 +0530