Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Sun, 15 Dec 2019 10:56:17 +0530 OJS 60 Formulation and Evaluation of Moringa Seed Oil Nanoemulsion Gel <p>Objective: The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the moringa seed oil (MSO) nanoemulsion gel using high-energy emulsification method.</p> <p>Methods: Nanoemulsion gel formulated by high-energy emulsification method using the comparison of surfactant (tween 80) and cosurfactant (sorbitol) concentration with the variation of moringa seed oil concentration. Evaluation of the stability of the nanoemulsion gel preparation includes centrifugation test, viscosity, pH, organoleptic observation (odor, color, clarity, and phase separation), and particle size measurement during 12 weeks storage at room temperature.</p> <p>Results: The results showed that all nanoemulsion gel preparations are transparent yellow, characteristic odor, type weights 1.0888–1.1193 g/ml, and stable for 12 weeks storage at room temperature. The smallest particle size produced by the nanoemulsion gel preparation in a formula of the concentration of 5%, which 52.25 nm.</p> <p>Conclusions: Moringa seed oil can be formulated as a nanoemulsion gel by high energy emulsification method. MSO&nbsp; with a 5% concentration was very stable for 12 weeks storage.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nita Tirmiara, Julia Reveny, Jansen Silalahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 21 Jan 2020 02:43:46 +0530 Quality Assessment of Antibiotic Oral Drug Formulations Marketed In Katsina State, Nigeria <p>There are increasing reports on the high incidence of substandard drugs, especially in developing countries.Pharmaceutical products have been reported to contain either no, low, or excessive amounts of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Inview of the above, 112 samples of six different antibiotic oral drug formulations were evaluated for chemical quality by assessing the presence and the percentage content of the stated active pharmaceutical ingredients using validated HPLC assay as described in the official monograph of the British and United Stated pharmacopoeia. The result indicates that 43 (38.4%) had active ingredients outside the set pharmacopoeial limit and therefore were non-compliant to the BP and the USP specifications for percentage content.&nbsp; Ampiclox and Cotrimoxazole had the highest proportion of samples with active ingredient outside the pharmacopoeial limit, and in three samples (one Augmentin and two Ampiclox), no active ingredient was detected. The presence of API lower than the claimed content declared on the packaging was the primary cause of non-compliance. The potential implications of the use of substandard drugs are treatment failure and the development of drug-resistance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mukhtar Gambo Lawal, Muhammad Dauda Mukhtar, Abdulkadir Magaji Magashi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 21 Jan 2020 02:43:46 +0530 Absence of Renal Protection of an Aqueous Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Cultivated in Costa Rica, Using a Model of Acute Renal Failure in Wistar Rats <ol> <li><em>citratus</em>, known as <em>zacate de limón</em> (lemongrass), is commonly used in Costa Rica for the treatment of "kidney diseases." Therefore, the activity as renal protector of an aqueous extract of this plant was evaluated after oral administration, in a model of acute kidney injury (AKI) in female <em>Wistar</em> rats. For this, an aqueous extract was characterized by thin layer chromatography and qualitative phytochemical tests. An AKI model induced by potassium chromate in female Wistar rats was carried out. The serum concentration of creatinine, sodium, potassium and glucose were determined, as well as the concentrations of creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose and proteins in urine, together with the urinary flow determination. A histopathological analysis of the subjects’ kidneys was performed, and the presence of kidney damage was identified. The characterization of the extract by thin layer chromatography, and ferric chloride, Shinoda and Wilson tests gave negative results for phenols, tannins and flavonoids. No positive changes were observed in renal function markers in urine. No histopathological evidence of nephroprotective activity of the aqueous extract of <em>C. citratus</em> was found. It is concluded that the aqueous extract of <em>C. citratus</em> obtained by infusion does not possess nephroprotective activity at a dose of 150 mg/kg evaluated by the AKI in female <em>Wistar</em> rats.</li> </ol> Apú Leitón Navilla, Fallas Ramírez Jose Manuel, Orozco Aguilar Josué, Rodríguez Arrieta Jesús Alexander, Mora Román Juan José ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:05:43 +0530 n-Hexane Extract of Mangrove Leaves Effect on p21 and Akt 2 Gene Expressions of WiDr Cells <p>Objectives: The study aims to examine the anticancer effect of polyisoprenoid of <em>Nypa fruticans, Ceriops tagal,</em> and <em>Rhizophora mucronata</em> leaves in WiDr cells by evaluating the regulation of p21 and Akt 2 gene.</p> <p>Design: <em>Nypa fruticans, Ceriops tagal,</em> and <em>Rhizophora</em> <em>mucronata</em> leaves were dried and extracted with n-hexane, analyzed the increase or decrease in regulation of p21 gene and Akt 2 expression which was determined the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method.</p> <p>Interventions: The variable that was intervened in this study was the 3 sample mangrove leaves.</p> <p>Main outcome measure: The main measurement results in this study were to study n-hexane extracts of mangrove leaves able to suppress the expression of p21 and Akt 2 genes so that cancer cell growth is inhibited.</p> <p>Results: n-hexane extract of <em>Ceriops tagal</em> leaves was more effective than <em>Nypa fruticans</em> and <em>Rhizophora mucronata</em>, in which there was up-regulated (p21) of 1.19 and down regulated (Akt 2) of 0.78 on colon cancer cells (WiDr). N-hexane extract of mangrove leaves has cancer chemoprevention activity with up-regulated and down-regulated on WiDr cells, in which the sample was more effective than n-hexane extract of <em>Ceriops tagal</em> leaves.</p> <p>Conclusion: N-hexane extract of mangrove leaves had cancer chemoprevention activity with up-regulated and down-regulated on WiDr cells, in which the sample was more effective than n-hexane extract of <em>Ceriops tagal</em> leaves.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Istiqomah M A, Hasibuan P. A. Z, Basyuni M ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:06:29 +0530 Evaluation of Drug Management For Tuberculosis (TB) Program At Pharmaceutical Installation Public Health Department of North Sumatra Province <p>Objective: Drug management consists of planning, storing and distribution. It is one of the important duty of Public Health Department of North Sumatra Province. Poor drug management will give a negative impact on service quality. This research aimed to evaluate the management of drug programs for tuberculosis (TB) in 2017, 2018 and 2019 in the Public Health Department of North Sumatra Province. The research was conducted in July - September 2019.</p> <p>Method: This research was descriptive with quantitative data obtained retrospectively and concurrently. Qualitative data were obtained through observations and interviews with informants. The data obtained were analyzed using indicators and compared with the results of the research.</p> <p>Result: The result of the research showed that planning, storing and distributing drug for the TB program in the Public Health Department of North Sumatra Province had not fully met the indicator standards. This was indicated by the 6 indicators which had not met the standard, that were the accuracy of planning; planning deviations; level of drug supply; percentage of expired drug; Inventory Turn Over Ratio (ITOR); the average time of drug vacancies and the percentage of dead drug stock and 3 indicators had met the standards, which were the percentage of expired drugs, the structuring system of drugs and the matching of the number of real goods with stock.</p> <p>Conclusion: the conclusion of this research is drug planning of Public Health Department of North Sumatra Province uses consumption method of previous period. Storage of drugs uses the FIFO/FEFO system. Drug distribution in the North Sumatra Provincial Health Office is based on requests from the District/City.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> April Sabri, Wiryanto M S, Khairunnisa M ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:07:57 +0530 Lead Exposure Causes Alteration of Haematological Indices in Adult Female Wistar Rats <p>Objective: Lead is a heavy metal widely distributed in the environment. It is known to be a toxicant and has no biological function. Humans are constantly exposed to lead from many sources and its effects on the haematological indices have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in haematological profile of adult female Wistar rats exposed to lead.</p> <p>Design: Forty-five female Wistar rats with average weight of 150 ± 20g were randomly distributed into 3 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was exposed to water only, group 2 was exposed to lead acetate (500mg/L) while group 3 was exposed to lead acetate (1000mg/L). The rats were exposed to lead for 52 days. On the 26<sup>th</sup>, 39<sup>th</sup> and 52<sup>nd</sup> days of exposure, five rats (n=5) were sacrificed from each group after mild anaesthesia and their blood samples were taken into EDTA bottles for haematological analysis using blood auto-analyzer. Results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and p&lt;0.05 were considered statistically significant.</p> <p>Main outcome measure: There was significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in white blood cell and lymphocyte counts in 500mg/L and 1000mg/L lead exposed groups when compared to the control. There was significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in monocyte and granulocyte counts in 500mg/L and 1000mg/L lead exposed groups when compared to control group. Platelet counts significantly increased (p&lt;0.05) in 500mg/L and 1000mg/L lead exposed groups when compared to control group.</p> <p>Conclusion: In conclusion, exposure to lead at 500 and 1000mg/L increased white blood cells, lymphocyte and platelet counts while it decreased monocyte and granulocyte counts in adult female Wistar rats. Therefore, lead at the exposed levels caused some alterations in the haematological parametersin adult female Wistar rats.</p> Adeyomoye O I, Adewumi N A ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:08:48 +0530 Formulation and Clinical Evaluation of Anti-Aging Activity of Blemish Balm Cream Vitamin E and Determination of SPF Value with Spectrophotometry <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to formulate face powder and foundation cream preparations into Blemish Balm Cream preparations with the addition of vitamin E, avobenzone and octyl methoxoxycinamic acid and to determine the effect of vitamin E on anti-aging activity and SPF values.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong><strong>:</strong> Blemish Balm Cream formulated from face powder and foundation cream in a ratio of 1: 2 and the addition of vitamin E in various concentrations, F0 (blank), F1 (1%); F2 (3%), and F3 (5%) and Avobenzone 3% sunscreen and 7.5% Octylmethoxycinamic.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> the intervened&nbsp; variable was the &nbsp;concentration of vitamin E used.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study were organoleptic test (shape, color and odor), homogeneity, pH, type of emulsion, viscosity, cycling test, spreadability, storage stability at room temperature, low temperature and high temperature for 12 weeks, irritation test, anti-activity aging with skin analysis and determination of SPF values ​​by UV-Vis spectrophotometry.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The Formulated Blemish Balm Cream was homogeneous, yellowish brown, has an emulsion type m / a, stable in room temperature storage (20-25 ° C), unstable in low temperature (4 ± 2 ° C), and high temperature ( 40 ± 2 ° C), had a pH of 6.0-7.9, produces a viscosity value that meets the requirements, was stable in the cycling test and did not irritate the skin. The results of anti-aging activity on F3 (5%) had a better effect than F0 (blank), F1 (1%) and F2 (3%) which characterized by increased skin moisture, pore reduction, reduction in the number of blemishes and reduction in wrinkles and produced higher SPF value.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Vitamin E (5%) and avobenzone 3% sunscreen and 7.5% octylmethoxycinamic could formulated into Blemish Balm Cream preparations used face powder and foundation formulas (1: 2) and provided good anti-aging activity effects, did not irritate the skin and could increased the value of the Sun Protecting Factor to 22.21</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Citra Sari Dewi Siregar, Julia Reveny, Aminah Dalimunthe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:10:50 +0530 Antiinflammatory Activity of Pagoda Flower (Clerodendrum Paniculatum L.) Ethanol Extract Using Paw Edema Method <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The purpose of this study was to determine antiinflammatory activity of pagoda flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum L.) ethanolic extract</p> <p>Design: This study uses an experimental laboratory design. This research uses paw edema method by inducing carrageenin in the legs of male white rats as an induction of inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> The sample used was pagoda flower ethanol extract in various dosages of 25, 50 and 100 mg / kg. As a comparison, acetosal dose 33 mg / kg was used. Na CMC suspension was used as a negative control.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong> The results in this study are the difference in the volume of edema volume from rat feet per unit time. The measurement of the rat's leg volume was measured at 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Pagoda flower ethanol extract does not have good anti-inflammatory activity. there were no significant differences between groups except at dose 100 and positive control at minute 300 of negative control.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ihsanul Hafiz, Mandike Ginting ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:11:31 +0530 Assessment of Drug Related Problems among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Hypertension in Doloksanggul Hospital, North Sumatera: A Retro prospective Study <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the drug-related problems (DRPs) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) patients whom also diagnosed with hypertension.<strong> Methods: </strong>The retrospective study was conducted from October to December 2018 at Doloksanggul Hospital in North Sumatera, Indonesia involving 42 T2DM with hypertension patients according to research inclusion criteria. The assessment of DRPs was based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) tools version 8.01. <strong>Results: </strong>This study identified 41 DRPs, averaging 0.98±0.24 DRPs per patient. The majority of problems were treatment effectiveness problems 97.62% (41 patients) while the patient related was the main causes (47.24%). The most intervention was conducted at patient level (71.62%).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Early detection of DRPs by pharmacist are essential to prevent DRPs and to ensure the effectiveness of drug therapy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eva Dewi Purba, Khairunnisa M, Hasibuan Poppy Anjelisa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:13:07 +0530 The Potency of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Leaf as a Facial Skin Care Ingredient in Clay Mask Formulation <p>Artocarpus heterophyllus (Ah), common name as nangka,&nbsp; has been reported to have antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemia, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Balinese women used its leaves for facial treatment. This study aims to evaluate its leaf potency for facial skin care. Ethanol extract of Ah (EEAh) that obtained by maceration was prepared into 3 clay mask formulations (FI: 1%, FII:3% and FIII:5%). F0 was used as control group. A total of 12 volunteers were treated with clay mask to evaluate its effect on moisture and pores size after intervention. The data were analysed using Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney test. The results showed that skin moisture increased after intervention (FI:3.7%; FII:4.7%;FIII:7.3%). Pores size decreased in FI (6.3%) and FII (13.4%). Statistically, there were significant different between F0-F1 (p=0.043), F0-F2 and F0-F3 (p=0.046 of each). The present study conclude that clay mask containing A. heterophyllus leaf ethanol extract have potency to be used as facial skin care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tri Widyawati, Siti Syarifah, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeut, Milahayati Daulay, Fitri Mustanti Lolyta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Dec 2019 14:14:13 +0530 Assessment of In-Vivo Antioxidant Potential of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Aerva Javanica Linn. Flowering Tops <p><em>Aerva javanica</em> (<em>Amaranthaceae</em>) is a grey coloured woolly perennial tomentose shrub. Its traditional and folklore usage motivates further investigation on its pharmacognostic parameters and pharmacological potential. Hydro-alcoholic extract (AJCE) was prepared from flowering tops of <em>A. javanica</em>. In order to work further on activity guided fractions, ethyl acetate (AJEAF) fraction was prepared.&nbsp; Therefore, in order to establish its antioxidant potential, <em>in-vivo</em> effect on LPO, GSH, SOD and catalase activity was determined. For comparison, silymarin and <em>Centella asiatica</em> extract (CAE) were used as standard antioxidant compound/extract. Lipid peroxidation in term of MDA content expressed as nM/mg, which was 82.18 and 67.39 for AJCE with increasing doses of complete hydro-alcoholic extract (AJCE represented as AJCE-1 and AJCE-2) and 51.65 for AJEAF in contrast to 40.64 nM/mg for standard silymarin and 46.81 nM/mg for standard CAE. GSH content was determined as 3.12, 3.82 and 4.56 μg/mg wet tissue in contrast to 5.59 for standard silymarin and 4.42 for standard CAE. Superoxide scavenging was expressed as SOD U/mg wet tissue, determined as 7.26, 9.16 and 9.91 U/mg wet tissue for AJCE-1 (250 mg/kg <em>i.p.</em> b.w), AJCE-2 (500 mg/kg <em>i.p.</em> b.w), and AJEAF respectively in comparison to silymarin (10.11) and CAE (46.81 U/mg wet tissue). Catalase activity expressed as μM of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>decomposed / min / mg wet tissue was determined as 0.61, 0.72 and 0.78 repectively for AJCE-1 (250 mg/kg <em>i.p.</em> b.w), AJCE-2 (500 mg/kg <em>i.p.</em> b.w), and AJEAF. Results indicated the SOD values and total antioxidant power of DEE and EAF fractions even better than standard ascorbic acid which expressed the prospective potential of fractions (DEE and EAF) against metabolic disorders.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alok Khunteta, Surendra K Swarnkar, Manish Kumar Gupta, Aruna Swarnkar, Swapnil Sharma, Sarvesh Paliwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 05 Jan 2020 20:32:46 +0530 An Advanced Review on Resealed Erythrocytes <p>Now a days there are numerous applications have been proposed for the use of resealed erythrocytes as carrier for drugs, enzyme replacement therapy etc. Until other carrier systems come of age, resealed erythrocytes technology will remain an active field for the further research. The use of resealed erythrocytes shows potential for a safe and effective delivery of various bioactive molecules for effective targeting. In coming future, erythrocyte based drug delivery system with their capability to afford controlled and site specific drug delivery have been developed for disease management. Erythrocyte carriers are <strong>“Nano devices in the field of Nanotechnology</strong>”. A large amount of valuable work is needed so as to utilize the potentials of erythrocytes in passive as well as active targeting of drugs in diseases like cancer. At present erythrocytes are most effective carriers in novel drug delivery systems considering their tremendous potential. Hence the present article is reviewed about method of drug loading, evaluation and applications of RSE.</p> Gousia S. Begum, Mustafa D ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 10:46:00 +0530 The Stages of Drug Discovery and Development Process <p>Drug discovery is a process which aims at identifying a compound therapeutically useful in curing and treating disease. This process involves the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, validation, optimization, screening and assays for therapeutic efficacy. Once a compound has shown its significance in these investigations, it will initiate the process of drug development earlier to clinical trials. New drug development process must continue through several stages in order to make a medicine that is safe, effective, and has approved all regulatory requirements. One overall theme of our article is that the process is sufficiently long, complex, and expensive so that many biological targets must be considered for every new medicine ultimately approved for clinical use and new research tools may be needed to investigate each new target.&nbsp; From initial discovery to a marketable medicine is a long, challenging task. It takes about 12 - 15 years from discovery to the approved medicine and requires an investment of about US $1 billion. On an average, a million molecules screened but only a single is explored in late stage clinical trials and is finally made obtainable for patients. This article provides a brief outline of the processes of new drug discovery and development.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amol B Deore, Jayprabha R Dhumane, Rushikesh Wagh, Rushikesh Sonawane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 15 Dec 2019 10:51:01 +0530 Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Some Essential Oils: A Review <p>Inflammation and pain are common phenomena associated with a number of diseases. Inflammatory diseases result from the body’s response to tissue damage, and if the resolution is not adequate or the stimulus persists, there will be progression from acute inflammation to chronic inflammation, leading to the development of cancer and neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases.&nbsp; It is necessary to search for new biologically active compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This article briefly summarizes the potential of essential oils and their compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ritika Kushwah, M K Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 23 Dec 2019 14:17:58 +0530