Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Thu, 15 Dec 2022 08:38:23 +0530 OJS 60 Imunomodulatory Effect of Red Tip Leaf’s (Syzygiummyrtifolium Walp.) Ethanol Extract on Male Rat <p>The pattern of&nbsp;modern&nbsp;life demands&nbsp;that everything must be done very fast and instant. The quality of&nbsp;the&nbsp;consumed&nbsp;food,&nbsp;&nbsp;air&nbsp;pollution,&nbsp;lack&nbsp;of exercise&nbsp;and&nbsp;stress&nbsp;can&nbsp;cause the&nbsp;body’s endurance to decline continuously.&nbsp;The Red Tip&nbsp;(<em>Syzigium&nbsp;myrtifolium</em>&nbsp;Walp.)&nbsp;has been researched to have a&nbsp;&nbsp;flavonoid&nbsp;compound that has benefits&nbsp;as an anti-inflammatory and have potentially as an immunomodulator.&nbsp;The purpose&nbsp;of this&nbsp;study&nbsp;is&nbsp;to prove&nbsp;the effect of&nbsp;immunomodulator&nbsp;on&nbsp;the activity&nbsp;of phagocytosis,&nbsp;the total number and&nbsp;the differential&nbsp;of leukosit,&nbsp;the antibody&nbsp;titer&nbsp; value, and delayed type hypersensitivity response. Group&nbsp;treatment&nbsp;to&nbsp;test&nbsp;the clearance of carbon divided into 7 groups, each consisting of&nbsp;5&nbsp;male mice&nbsp;including the&nbsp;group of&nbsp;CMC-Na 0.5&nbsp;%, Imboost&nbsp;®&nbsp;dose&nbsp;22.5 mg/&nbsp;kgBB, the red tip leaf’s ethanol&nbsp; extract with dose&nbsp;of 50,&nbsp;100, 200, 400,&nbsp;and&nbsp;800 mg/kg orraly distributed for&nbsp;7&nbsp;days, and on the 8<sup>th</sup> day the carbon&nbsp;suspension&nbsp;was given using i.v. The blood intake were done in certain times and then the absorbance&nbsp;was measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The&nbsp;liver&nbsp;and&nbsp;spleen of the&nbsp;rats were&nbsp;taken&nbsp;and&nbsp;weighed. The treatment&nbsp;group&nbsp;for antibody&nbsp;titer&nbsp;was divided&nbsp;into 7 groups with&nbsp;each&nbsp;consisting&nbsp;of&nbsp;5 male mice using the same treatment as above except positive control that has been used levamisole&nbsp;on 25 mg/kgBB dose that has been distributed orraly for 14 days. The non spesific immune respond utilizing carbon cleanses method by measuring the carbon elemination speed and total amount and leukocyte&nbsp;differential. The specific&nbsp;immune&nbsp;response&nbsp;testing&nbsp;using antibody titers was done based on glutination which was formed and the delayed type hypersensitivity testing based on the mice swollen foot. The research outcome shows that the distribution of the red tip leaf’s ethanol&nbsp;&nbsp; extract with dose&nbsp;of 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kgBB is increasing the phagocytosis activity significantly compared to CMC-Na 0.5% (p &lt; 0.05). The of the red tip leaf’s ethanol&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; extract is increasing the total of leukocytes and neutrophils of the segment. The distribution of the red tip leaf’s ethanol&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; extract with dose of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kgBB is increasing the formation of rat’s immune cell antibodies significantly compared to CMC-Na 0,5% (p &lt; 0,05).This research prove that the red tip leaf’s ethanol&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; extract has an effect of imunostimulator againts the phagocytosis activity, the total sum and leukocytes differential along with antibody titer value and the delayed type hypersensitivity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rony Andreas Harka Sinulingga, Poppy Anjelisa Z Hasibuan, Yuandani ., Rosidah ., Aminah Dalimunthe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 09:48:00 +0530 Bioequivalence study of BETALOC-XR™ (Drug International Ltd, Bangladesh) and METOPROLOL 100 STADA™ (STADA Pharm Gmbh, Germany) as open-label, two-way crossover and randomized fashion among healthy male volunteers <p>Bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of metoprolol 100 mg tablet was brought about in 16 healthy male Bangladeshi normal individuals as crossover-randomized fashion. The test and reference formulated products were BETALOC-XR™ (Drug International Ltd, Bangladesh) and METOPROLOL 100 STADA™ (STADA Pharm Gmbh, Germany).&nbsp; Each tablet was delivered with 150 mL of water to every normal individual after whole night fasting on two treatment days separated by more than one week washout period. After administering drug, blood samples were collected serially for a period of 24 hours. A validated HPLC method was used to estimate the plasma concentrations of metoprolol. The pharmacokinetic parameters C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC<sub>0→24h</sub>, t<sub>1/2</sub>, and K<sub>el</sub> were determined in this study. The mean (± SD) AUC<sub>0→24h</sub> for test drug BETALOC-XR<sup>TM</sup> was 490.3 ± 187.5 ng/hr/mL whereas for reference drug METOPROLOL 100 STADA<sup>TM</sup> it was 559.9 ± 267.2 ng/hr/mL. The relative bioavailability (BETALOC-XR<sup>TM</sup>/METOPROLOL 100 STADA<sup>TM</sup> ratio) was 87.5%. The C<sub>max</sub>, t<sub>max</sub>, half-life of elimination (t<sub>1/2</sub>) and the rate of elimination (K<sub>el</sub>) for test drug was 170.9 ± 78.3 ng/mL, 2.3 ± 0.8 hours, 1.2 ± 2.0 hour&nbsp; and 0.4362 whereas for reference drug was 209.1 ± 91.3 ng/mL, 1.7 ± 0.7 hours, 1.3 ± 2.2 hour and 0.5875 respectively. Based on these statistical hypothesis it was conjecture that a BETALOC-XR<sup>TM</sup> tablet is bioequivalent to a METOPROLOL 100 STADA<sup>TM</sup> tablet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Uttam Kumar Sarker, Fatiha Farhana, Atikul Islam, Mir Misbahuddin, Md. Elias Mollah, Balaram Roy, Md. Rabiul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 09:52:07 +0530 The Determinants of Active Aging for Improving Elderly Abilities <p>An elderly group is a vulnerable group due to the aging process. The declining health conditions of the elderly have an impact on the increasing dependence of the elderly on family and society. The state of the elderly is healthy holistically and actively affects the productive elderly. Increasing productivity among the elderly is significant in reducing dependence on others. One of the efforts to increase productivity among the elderly is the empowerment process. This research consists of two stages, (1) analytical observational method and (2) Focus Group Discussion. researchers will follow up on the research by Productive Elderly Indicator Measuring Tool based on an android application. The results of the study showed that there was a significant effect of holistic health conditions on increasing ability with a coefficient value of 0.268 with a significance of 0.003 (p-value &lt;0.05). A positive coefficient means that the more holistic health conditions, the greater the ability of the elderly. There is a significant effect of the active determinant on increasing ability with a coefficient value of 0.449 with a significance of 0.000 (p-value &lt;0.05). The positive coefficient means that the more active determinants are, the greater the ability of the elderly. There is a significant effect of increasing the ability of productive elderly with a coefficient value of 0.720 with a significance of 0.000 (p-value &lt;0.05). The positive coefficient means that the increasing ability of the elderly will increase productivity elderly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bondan Palestin, Siti Nur Kholifah, , Yessy Dessy Arna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 10:04:19 +0530 Educational modules as an effort to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk prevention <p><strong>Background: </strong>Heart disease is no longer affecting the elderly, but more and more young people are getting heart disease. An educational approach in health promotion by using attractive media is one of the most necessary ways to invite teenagers to behave in a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the education module on knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular disease prevention. The research method used a quasi-experimental design with a control group. The research sample is students at SMK Era Pembangunan 3, West Jakarta. Sampling was done by simple random sampling and a total sample of 68 people were selected. Data were analyzed using chi square test and multiple logistic regression. The results showed that the education module given to respondents could increase students' knowledge in preventing cardiovascular disease risk factors with a p value of 0.000:OR 51.83 (95% CI 9.84-273.05). Conclusion: the education module has an effect on increasing knowledge about the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Recommendations are expected that future research will develop more instruments on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ii Solihah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 10:15:25 +0530 Qualitative and Quantitative Screening of Phytochemicals in Polar and Non Polar Solvent Extracts of Stem Bark and Leaves of Saraca Indica <p>The present work can serve as a valuable source of information and provide appropriate standards to establish the quality of this plant material in future prospective study. From the results it is evident that the bark and leaves of <em>Saraca indica</em> contain a significant amount of phytochemicals viz. alkaloid, flavonoids, phenolic, saponins and tannin. The bark of <em>Saraca indica</em> contained relativelely higher amounts of phytochemicals than leaves. The comparative analysis of phytochemicals viz. total alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and tannins in different solvent extracts from bark and leaves of <em>Saraca indica</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shweta Gogate, Rahul Mathur, Arpit Raghuvanshi, Ashutosh kumar Yadav, Deepak Dhurve, Dheeraj Kumar Sen, Divya Raj, Jagdish Rathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 10:32:32 +0530 Estimation of Caffeine in Different Marketed Samples of Tea <p>The objective of this study was estimate of Caffeine in Different Marketed Samples of Tea Although there were no significant differences between the orders of caffeine content among the tested tea brands, the method with chloroform isolation exhibited significantly lower results and the highest results obtained by the micromethod using H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>at 273 nm UV wavelength with regard to other methods applied for the determination of caffeine. The non-laborious chemical method of determination of caffeine in tea samples using Lead oxide and Chloroform has shown us the caffeine levels in various samples. It is also true that caffeine in tea can have positive and negative effects on the organism consuming it.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shweta Gogate, Rahul Mathur, Adarsh Mathur, Adarsh Hukre, Abdur Rehman, Afzal Hussain, Jagdish Rathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 10:37:26 +0530 Prevalence and Evaluation of Complications in Valvular Heart Disease Patients In Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>One of the major outcomes of valvular heart disease have been chronic complications that in turn have led to the reduced quality of life of patients. These complications have indeed caused immense burden on the health care system and has led to increased mortality rate.<strong> Objective: </strong>To determine prevalence rate and to evaluate complications of valvular heart disease patients<strong>. Methods: </strong>This is a cross sectional-based study carried out in a single hospital in Hyderabad, India. The survey was carried out over a year in India. The source of data collection was through case sheets and lab reports. <strong>Results: </strong>Of the total 102 subjects, valvular diseases were more prevalent in the age group of 51-60 and females were found to be more affected than males. Complications were less or equal to no after the procedure of valve replacement was performed in patients with severe cases though some patients showed complications even after surgery, but were stable after a long time of monitoring. 1% of valve prolapse cases were seen and 3% deaths due to the disease. St.jude mechanical valve of different sizes, 19 EPR biological valve and aortic valve implants were majorly used for valve replacement procedure.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that valvular diseases are more prevalent in the age group 51-60, and females were more affected by valvular diseases than males. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were found to be the major comorbidities in valvular heart disease patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amtul Rafeh Mariya, Arshiya Mubeen Batool, Sri Praneeth Polamuri, Anupama Koneru, S. P Srinivas Nayak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 10:43:06 +0530 Development and Validation Method for Simultaneous Investigation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and N-Acetyl Cysteine In Bulk And Pharmaceutical Formulation By RP-HPLC. <p>A simple, precise and rapid reverse phase HPLC- SPD 20-Amethod has been developed and validated for the simultaneous investigation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride (AMB) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) in tablet dosage form. The mixture of (AMB) and (NAC) was separated on C<sub>18 </sub>5µm.column (4.5 µm × 25 cm). All separation were monitored with a SPD-20A UV-Vis detector on 210 – 400 nm wavelength at ambient temperature and flow rate of 1 ml/min. The mobile phase was phosphate buffer: acetonitrile (75:25) and pH 2.5 adjusted with dilute ortho-phosphoric acid. The retention time of AMB and NAC were found to be 8.4024 and 3.35088 respectivelythe resolution was 9.86346. The method was mean recoveries in the range of 100.4 to 100.15 for all components. The developed method can be use for the routine analysis of AMB and NAC in tablet dosage form.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lokesh Thote, Disha Dhabarde, Jagdish Baheti, Shilpa Borkar, Swati Bhusari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 11:01:35 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of Nail Drug Delivery System of Anti Fungal Drug <p>The purpose of this study was to prepare nail lacquer for nail drug delivery system of anti fungal drug in order to improve the&nbsp;physicochemical parameters that influence&nbsp;the drug permeation through a nail plate to&nbsp;reach the systemic circulation and the&nbsp;neighbouring target sites. &nbsp;The success of local topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on the achievement of effective chemical concentrations into/through the human nail plate; therefore, a suitable antifungal drug must be coupled with an appropriate delivery method. The method should maximize the effect of the active principle by aiding its diffusion into the nail bed to levels exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against local infection by dermatophytes. Thus, a suitable carrier may be needed to enhance drug penetration through the nail barrier.</p> <p>The nail lacquer formulations were prepared by simple mixing method and analyzed for non volatile content, gloss, smoothness to flow, drug diffusion studies, and % drug content. Among all formulations, nail lacquer prepared with 2% oxiconazole, 6% nitrocellulose, 1% ethyl cellulose, 15% salicylic acid, 10% propylene glycol and 10% 2-H β-CD exhibited good non volatile content, drug release, drug content estimation and zone inhibition i.e. F4 formulation. The drug release profiles were achieved 93.2% at 12 h. The <em>in vitro</em> ungual permeation studies revealed a good <em>in vitro in vivo</em> correlation. Nail lacquer were substantially stable after 1 month storage at 40±2℃.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Misbah Nikhath, Sanjana S ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 11:07:55 +0530 Fabrication of Nanogel for Topical Drug Delivery of Montelukast <p>A novel nanocrystal system of montelukast (MTK) was designed to improve the transdermal delivery, while ensuring chemical stability of the labile compound. MTK nanocrystal Nanogel was fabricated using using nano dispersion method (Modified emulsification diffusion method). In the pre-formulation study, there was not any physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer had been evaluated by FTIR. The melting point was found to be 134- 137 0C. It is freely soluble in Cyclohexane &amp; butanol ratio and water. The standard curve of ondansetron had been prepared by Cycloheaxxane &amp; butanol (7:3). Montelukast nanogel were prepared by nanodispersion method. Formulations of different drug ratio were optimized with selected parameters like particle size, PDI, Zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, clarity test. pH test of gel, viscosity and gelation temperature. Drug release studies were performed by dialysis bag diffusion technique at a temperature (37°C). The study was continued for 24 hours till. The maximum amount of drug montelukast release 87% within 24 hr. The study was monitored at 37°C. Preparation, characterization and drug release study of montelukast loaded nanogel. This approach of montelukast loaded nanogel with chitosan as the polymer is quite successfully developed.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Trapti Pandey, Neeraj Sharma, Naveen Gupta, Dharmendra Gupta, Kuldeep Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 11:14:59 +0530 Design, Development and Evaluation of Enteric Coated Tablets of Famotidine <p>The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate of enteric coated&nbsp; Famotidine sodium sesquihydrate tablets by using manotol, dicalcium phosphate, microcrystalline cellulose, crossrmelose sodium, magnesium starate and talc. FT-IR study was carried out to check any possible interactions between the drug and the excipients manotol, dicalcium phosphate, microcrystalline cellulose, crosscarmelose sodium, Famotidine sodium sesquihydrate were prepared by direct compression method using different concentration of, Avicel PH (MCC) as filler, mannitol and dicalcium phosphate as diluents, croscarmellose sodium as disintegrating agents, magnesium stearate and talc was used as a glidant and lubricant respectively. The granules were evaluated for the precompression parameters like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density and compressibility index. The flow characteristics of the granules were assessed by determining their angle of repose and Carr’s Index. The values of compressibility index and angle of repose signify good flowability of the granules for all the batches. This shows that the granules had smooth flow properties ensuring homogenous filling of the die cavity during the compression (punching) of tablets.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Prashansa Mishra, Ankita Shukla, Dharmendra Singh Rajput, Naveen Gupta, Neeraj K Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 09 Jan 2023 22:36:58 +0530 Design, Development and Evaluation of Gastro- Retentive Mucoadhesive Microballons of Lansoprazole for Management of Peptic Ulcer <p>A major problem for gastric delivery is the attainment of an optimal concentration at site of action with maximum bioavailability of drugs. The problem is associated with the conventional dosage form for peptic ulcer diseases is frequent dosing due to the low half life. The bioavailability of an instilled compound is generally low from 1.5 – 3.0 h and low solubility, with only a small fraction reaching the target site. In the present study an attempt was made to develop a mucoadhesive Microballons of&nbsp; Lansoprazole with variation in polysaccharide polymeric combination with different ratios to increase mucoadhesion at gastric mucosa, which increase the gastric residence time, thus increase the bioavailability.The result indicated that the drug have maximum solubility water, and also&nbsp; soluble in 0.1 N HCl. The partition coefficient of&nbsp; Lansoprazole HCl was found to be (0.2442). The FTIR spectrum is shown in Figure. The characteristic peaks of&nbsp; Lansoprazole HCl were observed at 3290, 3220, 3127, 3084, 2975, 2820, 2819, 2781, 1621, 1517, 1420, 1418, 1425, 1412, 1317 and 1319 cm<sup>-1</sup>.The prepared mucoadhesive microballons were determine for percentage yield and the range of percentage yield is 89.2 % - 95.9. The Shape and surface morphology of prepared mucoadhesive microballons was shown by photograph by scanning electron microscope in Figure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jitendra Kumar, Dharmendra Singh Rajput, Naveen Gupta, Neeraj K Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 09 Jan 2023 22:48:28 +0530 The Role of Ginsenosides in Myocardial Ischemic Injury-A Systematic Review <p>Topical herbal formulations are gaining more attention in wound healing due to their safety and efficacy. This is a systematic review of the effects of <em>Curcuma longa</em>topical formulations on wound healing. <em>C. longa</em> is a traditional medicinal plant used due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties. Studies carried outas randomized control trials and clinical trials were included for the analysis of this review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google scholar (up to March 2022) with 04 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. All randomized control trials and clinical trials have shown a significant improvement in wound healing. The topical formulations containing <em>C. longa</em> as an ingredient have reportedly improved wound healing in cases of eczema, radiodermatitis, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis vulgaris, senile pruritis, and xerotic skin conditions, according to the studies covered in this review.This review identified some evidence that <em>C. longa</em> extract has good effects for wound healing, in accordance with its use in traditional medicine. To evaluate the impact of <em>C. longa</em> on wound healing, including complications, larger, well-designed randomized control trials are required.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Song Wenhao, Wang Quanwei, Fu Wenwen, Zhang Ce, Wang Tian ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 11:45:02 +0530 A systematic review of the effects of Curcuma longa topical formulations on wound healing <p>Topical herbal formulations are gaining more attention in wound healing due to their safety and efficacy. This is a systematic review of the effects of <em>Curcuma longa</em>topical formulations on wound healing. <em>C. longa</em> is a traditional medicinal plant used due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties. Studies carried outas randomized control trials and clinical trials were included for the analysis of this review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google scholar (up to March 2022) with 04 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. All randomized control trials and clinical trials have shown a significant improvement in wound healing. The topical formulations containing <em>C. longa</em> as an ingredient have reportedly improved wound healing in cases of eczema, radiodermatitis, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis vulgaris, senile pruritis, and xerotic skin conditions, according to the studies covered in this review.This review identified some evidence that <em>C. longa</em> extract has good effects for wound healing, in accordance with its use in traditional medicine. To evaluate the impact of <em>C. longa</em> on wound healing, including complications, larger, well-designed randomized control trials are required.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sriaandhal Sabalingam, Malitha Aravinda Siriwardhene ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 11:59:29 +0530 Pharmacognostic Characteristics, Chemistry, Biological Activity And Toxicity of Lolium Species <p>Around seven species of the genous lolium poisonous grasses belonging to the family Poaceae are mutually grown in corps field over the world. In Iraq the prennel ryegrass is locally called “rewatta”.The toxicity of these gasses are related to three chemically distinct alkaloids groups; the aminopyrrolizidine; lolines, indole-diterpenes (ergots, loliterms, and paxillines) as well as peramine alkaloids mostly concentrated in their seeds although indole-diterpene alkaloids loliterm B and paxilline biosynthesis requires endophytes symbiosis. The level of loline alkaloids enhances in both late summer-autumn of the year as well as in the infected dry plant materials up to 10 fold. However, paxilline and ergovaline are believed to be the precursor of the most toxic lolium species alkaloids, loliterm B, although, indole-diterpene alkaloids paxillines, loliterms and ergovaline are the actual indicators of Lolium species. In this review we summarize chemical characteristics, biological and toxicological influences as well as their interrelation of the plant of lolium genus. Central as well as peripheral biological/toxicological manifestations are summarized for both loline and indole-diterpene alkaloids. Finally, toxic influences of lolium alkaloids are function of their biological influences mostly exhibited via resembling molecular mechansims centrally as well as peripherallyare concluded.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hussein Ali Hussein Al-Sa'idy, Hussein Kamil Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:08:20 +0530 PCR Technology and Its Importance In Covid-19 Pandemic <p>Since the discovery of the PCR technology, its application in the various fields is increased gradually. Based on to this principle, many variations of the PCR have been established. Year by year, it is upgraded very much. It is established as a most common and accurate technique for the detection of the various diseases in the field of medicine. Now it is a ‘Gold standard’ for the detection of covid-19 also, which is much needed to contain the spread of the virus. Though various detection techniques are there for detection, but real time RT-PCR (variation of PCR) is most reliable. Viral detection is based on a simple principle of nucleic acid (viral) amplification. Various manufacturing companies are manufacturing the PCR instrument. Though the accuracy of the instruments are slightly differ to each other.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anupam Maity, Krishnasis Chakraborty ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:17:46 +0530 Areview On Rheumatoid Arthiritis <p>Rheumatoid arthritis is a persistent, painful inflammatory condition characterized by serious destruction of the bone marrow and cartilage in the joints. It can also affect the body as a whole, including the tissues, leading to disorders of the heart, lungs, nervous system, and eyes. It is an extremely painful inflammatory condition that significantly limits movement due to pain and joint deterioration. Systemic disease rheumatoid arthritis usually affects tissues that constrict. Age, race, inheritance, aberrant immunological functioning, and stress are risk factors. Early rheumatoid arthritis appears to have a unique cytokine profile for the production of interleukin-4, 13, and 15,52, which later show in chronic rheumatoid arthritis. The main objectives of rheumatoid arthritis treatment are to minimize pain and stop or slow the disease's progression. Therefore, early disease detection and correct diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Low-dose GCs combined with Awards are a safe and effective therapy choice for radiographic progression, symptom reduction, and high rates of clinical remission.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lalitha Sumathi, Manimekalai Pichaivel, Sabarinath ., Thilagasundari Kandasamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:27:09 +0530 Necessity, Importance, Future Aspects and Challenges of Pharmacovigilance <p>Pharmacovigilance (PV) is kind of a sunshade to clarify the processes for observance and evaluating Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and it’s a key part of effective drug regulation systems, clinical follow and public health programs. Spontaneous news of ADRs could be an important part of PV &amp; it becomes a major disadvantage in developing countries. Knowledge of PV might sort the thought for interventions aimed toward up news rates and decreasing ADRs. PV could be an important and integral part of clinical analysis &amp; it jointly plays employment among the help system through observance and interaction of medication and there effects among the body. Nowadays in state, PV provides awareness relating to ADRs and this review provides knowledge relating to implementation for determination of current problems. India’s rising stage; there is heaps to be done and told, the sphere of PV, in ensuring that the safe implementation of the activities and work done is achieved. Their increasing kind of hospitalization of patients as a results of ADRs and it becomes a challenge to hunt out the precise cause, once a patient is treated with multiple medication at a similar time. PV helps in safe and convenient use of pharmaceutical medication. The foremost objective of PV is that the assessment of benefit-risk profile of drug for higher potency and safety in patients. This review explains the need of Pharmacovigilance in companies, its growth in various centuries and current standing among the country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shaikh Sameena, Sameer Shafi, Dhumal P.B ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:35:36 +0530 Nanoemulsion as Novel Drug Delivery System: Development, Characterization and Application <p>A dispersed nano-system with droplet sizes as small as submicrons is called a nanoemulsion. Nanoemulsions are thermodynamically stable, transparent, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water, surfactant, and co-surfactant. Nanoemulsion typically has droplet sizes between 20 and 200 nanometer. The size and composition of the scattered particles in a continuous phase are the primary distinctions between an emulsion and a nanoemulsion. This approach is intended to alleviate some of the issues that low bioavailability and noncompliance, two issues with traditional drug delivery systems, bring up.Today, nano emulsion can be created for a number of administration routes. A nano emulsion formulation can be considered an effective, secure, and patient-compliant pharmaceutical delivery method. Nowadays, nano emulsions have attracted a lot of interest in pharmacotherapy, dosage form design, and research. A surfactant and a cosurfactant can preserves the stability components of nanoemulsion. Brief details on the types, preparation process, stability, assessment, and applications of nanoemulsion are provided in this review.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nikhil Dhumal, Vishal Yadav, Smita Borkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:45:58 +0530 A Review on Microspheres: Preparation, Characterization and Applications <p>Small sphere-shaped particles are known as microspheres and their particle size range is 1micrometer to 1000 micrometer. They are free-moving, spherical particles that can be manufactured from proteins or artificial polymers. There are several methods for delivering a medicinal chemical to the target region with a regulated, prolonged release. which naturally decomposes.Microcapsules and micromatricesare two of the different types of microspheres. There are numerous varieties of microspheres that are described. Microspheres are one of the most popular varieties and provide a number of benefits.Theseprepared microspheres can be compressed or filled with a firm gelatin. There are several methods for creating microspheres, including single-emulsion, double-emulsion, solvent evaporation, phase separation coacervation, and spray drying. Microspheres are assessed using a variety of assessment methods, and they are examined in relation to a number of applications, including the delivery of vaccines, chemotherapy, ophthalmic drugs, gene therapies, and oral, nasal, and buccal drug delivery of pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Prasad Galande, Vishal Yadav, Smita Borkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:51:01 +0530 Pharmacological Vunerability of Chemophoric Groups <p>The drugs target the pathological proteins for the pharmacological intervention through their vunerability of chemophoric and congate groups <sup>1-3</sup> at therapeutic level. They are essential for binding affinity, intrinsic efficacy and bioavailability. They are introduced in bioactive molecules by replacement of hydrogen atoms. They are implicated in SAR modifications and interactional participation with receptor or enzyme or target protein. The pharmacological influence of them is delineated here.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Dec 2022 12:57:27 +0530 A Review: Phytochemical Investigation and Medicinal Applications of Herb’s <p>Now a day’s major population over the world is facing the issue of allopathic drug and their adverse effect in treatment of various diseases. Ayurveda&nbsp;is one of the traditional medicinal systems of India. The philosophy behind&nbsp;Ayurveda&nbsp;is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes.Herbals are one of the best alternativesin treatment of acute and chronic diseases.</p> <p>In this review different herb has been studied due to its medicinal, pharmacognostic and therapeutic application. This article enlists some commercial and non-commercial Polyherbal all around the world. In which plants, fruits, leaves, seeds and powder of <em>Momordica dioica, Lantana camara L., Curcuma longa,Carthamustinctorius and Acacia catechu </em>has been studied. This article provides a general idea about different herbs, their phytochemical contents, method of extraction and applications in treatment of various diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nitin Padole, Himanshu Chandankhede, Rupal Deshmukh, Prajakta Chatakwar, Shivani Dandekar, Jagdish Baheti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Dec 2022 12:07:13 +0530 A Comparative Study of Herbal Memory Enhancers <p>Perhaps the most important characteristic that sets humans apart from other animals is memory. Drugs and herbal therapies have been prescribed for centuries to improve people's memories. Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine, includes a treasure trove of such memory-enhancing medications that are now well-known on a global scale due to their efficacy. Nootropic herbs are herbs that act on the brain, and smart pharmaceuticals are their isolated ingredients. Herbs that improve memory also stimulate the blood flow in the brain. Memory is the most crucial factor in separating one person from another since it helps us identify our unique selves. There are three fundamental types of memory that enable the brain to save, retrieve, and encrypt. Without these fundamental forms of memory, a person also strugglesto develop relationships, learn new things, and perform essential daily tasks. Since recent decades, Indian and Chinese cultures have developed a variety of traditional medicines made from herbs to treat various ailments, including memory loss and decline in cognitive function as well as to boost learning capacity. Nootropic herbs are well-known for their ability to act on the brain and for being smart medications due to their ability to increase blood flow to the brain. This review focuses on organic substances and herbs that improve memory<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Nishant Agarwal, Ramesh Pareek, Vandana Sharma, Shailendra Tripathi, Ravindra Singh, Kartikey Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Jan 2023 21:21:09 +0530 Therapeutic Effect of Herbal Medicinal Plants on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Review <p>Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) problem affects mature female in entire world. Menstrual irregularity, infertility, and hirsutism symptoms are all caused by PCOS patients' altered androgen and oestrogen metabolism and secretion rates. PCOS is associated to insulin resistance, obesity, and amplified concentration of hormones found in male. Both allopathic and natural treatments can be used to treat PCOS, which is becoming more common, as well as the physical and emotional issues it is connected with. Changes in sex hormones can also contribute to the development of this disease. <em>Asparagus racemosus, Bauhinia variegata, Nigella sativa, Vitex negundo, Cocus nucifera,</em> and other herbal plants have bioactive compounds that are safe and efficient for treating PCOS and associated complications. This review attempts to comprehend the bioactive components of natural medicinal plants that are either utilised alone or in combination to treat this condition.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vineet Kumar, Nitesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 09 Jan 2023 22:14:29 +0530