Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) editorajprd@gmail.com (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Mon, 28 Sep 2020 05:31:28 +0530 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Comparison of Antibacterial Activities of Soursop Leaf (Annona muricata L.) and Basil Leaf (Ocimum americanum L.) Ethanolic Extracts on Gel Formulated Against Staphilococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/770 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of Soursop leaf (<em>Annona muricata</em> L.) and Basil leaf (<em>Ocimum americanum</em> L.) ethanolic extract on gel formulated againts <em>Staphilococcus aureus</em> and <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> This study uses an experimental laboratory design. This research uses difusion method, the inhibitory comparison between positive and negative control performed. This study compared the antibacterial activity of two gels that have different active ingredients to the growth of skin bacteria, namely <em>Staphilococcus aureus</em> and <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> The sample used was two types of gels each containing Soursop leaf and basil leaf ethanol extract that&nbsp; in various concentration of 5, 10 and 15%. As a comparison, Clindamycin gel concentration 1% was used. The distilled water was used as a negative control.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong> The results showed a significant difference in inhibition between the samples groups against negative controls. The inhiibitory zone diameter of soursop leaf in 5, 10, and 15% concentrations were 9.30<u>+</u>0.17, 10.37<u>+</u>0.63, and 12.27<u>+</u>0.27 mm in inhibiting the growth of <em>Staphilococcus aureus</em>, and 9.00<u>+</u>0.00, 10.40<u>+</u>0.20, and 12.07<u>+</u>0.13 mm in inhibiting <em>Propionibacterium acne</em>. The result of the basil gel were 10.37<u>+</u>0.82, 11.50<u>+</u>0.50 and 12.43<u>+</u>0.29 against <em>Staphilococcus aureus</em> and 10.90<u>+</u>0.38, 12.00<u>+</u>0.00 and 13.37<u>+</u>0.20 against <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The both gels containing soursop and basil leaves ethanol extract have good antibacterial activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ismail Efendy, Ruth Mayana Rumanti, Mutia Rimala, Indra Ginting, Yettrie Bess Congencya Simarmata, Vivi Eulis Diana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/770 Mon, 28 Sep 2020 05:31:28 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of Hair Tonic Gel Preparations Resistance Water Fraction N-Hexan Fruit Curm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/772 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to formulate and evaluate of hair tonicgel preparations resistance water fraction n-hexan fruit curm (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em> L.)<strong>Method:</strong> Dates are macerated with 80% ethanol, the extract is concentrated with a rotary evaporator dried with a freeze dryer, the extract is then fractionated with n-hexane. The concentrations used in the preparation of waterproof Hair tonic gel are 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% ​​fraction of n-hexane then compared to Hair Tonic from the market. Evaluation of gel preparations includes checking homogeneity, pH, viscosity, irritation, and stability. The animals used are male white rats.<strong>Results:</strong> The evaluation results of the waterproof gel evaluation on the fraction of n-hexane meet the SNI requirements. Hair tonic waterproof gel preparations yellow to dark brown, homogeneous for 12 weeks of storage at room temperature. The pH and viscosity are stable during 12 weeks of storage and do not irritate the skin. The best hair tonic waterproof hair growth gel growth activity at a concentration of 10%, n-hexane fraction (1.41 ± 0.07).Conclusion: The preparation of waterproof hair tonic gel n-hexane fraction (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em> L.) has hair growth activity.</p> Chandra P, Reveny J, Nainggolan M ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/772 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:44:00 +0530 Formulation and Antibacterial Activity Tests of Nanoemulsion Gel Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.) Ethanol Extract http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/777 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Black cumin (<em>Nigella sativa</em> L.) is an herbal plant that has the chemical content of essential oil and pharmacological effect as a broad-spectrum antibacterial namely <em>thymoquinone</em> (TQ). This research was carried out by making ethanol extract of black cumin, formulating it into nanoemulsion gel and testing the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria in the skin.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Black cumin seeds macerated with 80% alcohol and concentrated with a rotary evaporator. Black cumin ethanol extract is formulated into nanoemulsion gel using spontaneous emulsification with concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7%. The preparation is stored and evaluated for 12 weeks at room temperature. Evaluation of preparation quality includes organoleptic, viscosity, particle size, centrifugation and cycling test. Antibacterial activity test of nanoemulsion gel of black cumin ethanol extract was carried out by cup-plate technique using <em>Staphylococcus aureu</em>s, <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> dan <em>Propionibacterium acne</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the extract yield was 18,37% w/w. All formulas were stable during 12 weeks storage, viscosity 2850-3750 mPa.s, particle size around 45,85-419,78 nm, centrifugation results and cycling tests showed no sedimentation and phase separations, so it were said to be physically stable. The results of the antibacterial activity test showed the value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of <em>Staphylococcus aureu</em>s bacteria in F1, F2 and F3 respectively 7,83; 8,93 and 10,00 mm, <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> bacteria 6,63; 7,67 and 8,43 mm, <em>Propionibacterium acne</em> bacteria 6,43; 7,47 and 7,83 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of the study concluded that nanoemulsion gel of black cumin ethanol extract with a concentration of 7% is the best formula because it is stable during storage, has the greatest antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria in the skin.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syahfitri E L, Reveny J, Nainggolan M ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/777 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:46:20 +0530 Antidiabetic Activity of Lactobacillus fermentum Bacteria from Dengke Naniura Goldfish (Cyprinuscarpio) in Nicotinamide-Streptozotosin Induced Rats http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/778 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aims to determine the effect of <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> on decreasing blood glucose levels, sRAGE, HbA1c levels.Methods: Testing was done on male rats, which consisted of 7 groups. Group 1 as negative control was given Na-CMC0.5%, group 2 was given <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> isolate dose 0.5mL, group 3 was given <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> isolate dose 1mL, group 4 was given <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> isolate dose 1.5mL, group 5 was given <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> isolate dose 2 mL, group 6 as positive control was given glibenclamide dose 0.45 mg/kg, and group 7 as the normal group. Decreased KGD, sRAGE, HbA1C.<strong>Results:</strong> The results of statistical analysis showed that the administration of <em>Lactobacillus fermentum </em>showed the effect of a decrease in blood glucose (KGD) rats that were not significantly different than the positive control group (p &lt;0.05). From the results of testing the <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> 2 mL treatment group gave the best results on decreasing sRAGE levels; decreased HbA1C.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of this study <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> bacteria can reduce blood glucose, sRAGE, HbA1C levels in rats induced by Nicotinamide-Streptozotosin.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syahputri H, Silalahi J, Harahap U, Satria D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/778 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:48:38 +0530 Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Sikkam (Bischofia Javanica Blume) Stem Bark http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/779 <p>One of the medicinal plants that have been known since ancient times is sikkam (Bischofia javanica Blume) which is used as a natural dye in rattan and bamboo matting. Lawang Agung Village Community Kab. Lahat South Sumatra uses sikkam as a spice in cooking which is believed to be anti-inflammatory.&nbsp; This study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of sikkam stem bark (Bischofia Javanica Blume) to reduce the edema volume of male white rats induced by carrageenan 1% and also to determine the effective dose of extract to reduce the volume of rat foot edema.Ethanol extract of sikkam bark (Bischofia Javanica Blume) was obtained by maceration. Anti-inflammatory activity test was divided into 5 groups. Group I (negative control) was given 0.5% CMC, Group II (positive control) was given diclofenac sodium 2.25 mg /kgBW, while Group III, IV and V were given ethanol extracts of sikkam bark with doses of 50,100 and 200 mg/kgBW respectively. Each rat was induced by 1% carrageenan subplantar injection. Examination of anti-inflammatory effects was measured using a digital plethysmometer at 30 to 360 minutes. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA (analysis of variance). The results showed that negative controls did not show an anti-inflammatory effect that had a significant difference with the other treatment groups. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of sikkam bark (Bischofia Javanica Blume) has effective anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kgBW.</p> Aswan Pangondian, Marline Nainggolan, Aminah Dalimunthe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/779 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:50:13 +0530 Analysis of Drug Managementin Pharmaceutical Warehouse of Pematangsiantar City Health Office http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/776 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to analyze the management of drugs in 2018-2019 in the pharmaceutical warehouse of the Pematangsiantar City Health Office.<strong>Method:</strong> This research is a descriptive study with concurrent and retrospective data collection. The data obtained were analyzed using indicators and compared with literature standards. This research was conducted in January-March 2020.<strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that there were 9 indicators that did not meet the management standards for drug management, namely the accuracy of planning; percentage of planning deviations; frequency of procurement of drug items per year; percentage of essential drug procurement; percentage deviations in the amount of drugs distributed; percentage of expired drug; average time of drug emptiness; Inventory Turn Over Ratio (ITOR); the percentage of on time delivery of the LPLPO and 3 indicators that meet the standards, namely the compatibility of the drug items with the DOEN; percentage of dead drug stock; and compatibility of the number of real goods with stock.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> Drug management in the pharmaceutical warehouse of Pematangsiantar City Health Office, including; planning, procurement, distribution, storage, recording and reporting in the Pematangsiantar City Health Office have not fully met the indicator standards.</p> Magdalena E H, Wiryanto W, Harahap U ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/776 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:51:55 +0530 Identification of gyrA Gene Resistance on Bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiellapneumoniaein Urinary Tract Infection Patients in Haji Adam Malik Center Hospital, Medan, Indonesia http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/780 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To find out whether <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiellapneumoniae</em> that cause urinary tract infection have ciprofloxacin resistant gyrA coding genes.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> The method used in this study is a cross sectional prospective design and carried out prospectively in urinary tract infection patients who have medical record data on the diagnosis urinary tract infection patients in the period February 2019 to January 2020 at the Haji Adam Malik General Hospital in Medan by takingurine from patients, then detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the Integrated Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara.</p> <p><strong>Main outcomes measure: </strong>The resistance coding gene in <em>Escherichia coli</em>with the percentage of gyrA gene is 96,1% and <em>Klebsiellapneumoniae </em>has a low percentage where the expression of gyrA gene is 66,6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The distribution of the gyrA gene in <em>Escherichia coli</em> is higher than that of <em>Klebsiellapneumoniae.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lilik Septiana, Urip Harahap, Fransiscus Ginting ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/780 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:53:06 +0530 In-vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of A 50% Hydroethanolic Polyherbal Crude Extract http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/771 <p>The multiple activities of the plant based medicinal preparations meant for varieties of inflammatory diseases offer enormous scope for combating the threat of diseases. The present study was designed to develop safer, effective and viable anti-inflammatory herbal combination to control oxidative stress related ailments as new alternatives to synthetic drugs. The synergistic potential of herbal combination of two medicinal plants was assessed through curative and preventive mode of treatment. Among the numerous traditional herbs, <em>Gymnea sylvestre</em> and <em>Urgenia Indica</em> is widely used for its traditional value. Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. It has been reported that numerous plant extracts have antioxidant activities to scavenge free radicals. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of crude 50 % hydroethanolic polyherbal crude extract of <em>Gymnea sylvestre</em> and <em>Urgenia Indica</em> were studied in <em>in-vitro </em>models viz. radical scavenging activity by DPPH reduction Assay, Scavenging of SO, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and reducing power, DOT PLOT and FRAP assay. The extract was found to contain large amounts of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. 50% hydroethanolic polyherbal crude extract of <em>Gymnea sylvestre</em> and <em>Urgenia Indica</em> possessed significant antioxidant activity. These results suggest that synergistic activity of the crude extract has potential to develop a new functional dietary agent to treat chronic metabolic diseases, such as diabetes , hyperlipidemia and various inflammatory diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Monisha Sudhakar, Arthi Varadharaja Perumal, Ragavi Rassappan, Sandhya Sambamurthy, Susmitha Senthil Kumar, Swathi Sundar, Varshini Viswanathan, Yogesh Leela Krishnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/771 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:54:59 +0530 Screening of Preliminary Phytochemicals and GC-MS Analysis of Chloroform Extract of Chaetomorpha media (C.Ag.) Kuetzing http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/773 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present study was carried out to analyse the chloroform extract of marine green macro alga <em>Chaetomorpha media </em>(C.Ag.) Kuetzing, belonging to the family Chlorophyceae.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> The plant materials were collected from Manapad, located in Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, India. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out by Harborne method and followed by the characterization of biochemicals were predicted using GC-MS analysis.</p> <p><strong>Intervention:</strong> Among the various solvent extracts, chloroform extract was intervened in this study</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong> The main measurement results in this study were to determine the presence of various phytochemicals in the chloroform extract of <em>Chaetomorpha media </em>(C.Ag.) Kuetzing</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the preliminary phytochemical analysis of the chloroform extract of <em>Chaetomorpha media</em> (C.Ag.) Kuetzing, seventeen different types of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, anthocyanin, anthraquinone, catechin, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic groups, phlobatannins, phytosteroids, quinones, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, emodins and diterpenes were present in the chloroform extract. GC-MS spectrum of chloroform extract of <em>Chaetomorpha media</em> (C.Ag.) Kuetzing revealed 18 different major peaks which indicated the presence of eighteen compounds. The prevailing compounds in chloroform extract were 6-Methyloctahydro coumarin, Cyclododecane methanol, 2,3,4-Trimethoxyphenyl acetonitrile, Silicic acid, diethyl bis(trimethylsilyl) ester, Propanamide, 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl), 2-Ethylacridine, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Silane, trimethyl [5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)phenoxy], 1H-Indole, 1-methyl-2-phenyl, Benzo[h]quinoline, 2,4-dimethyl, Indole-2-one, 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl, Tris(tertbutyl dimethylsilyloxy) arsane,&nbsp; [1,2,4]-Triazolo[4,3-a] [1,3,5]-triazine 5,7-diacetylamino-3-methyl, Cyclotrisiloxane, hexamethyl, Benzo[h]quinoline, 2,4-dimethyl,&nbsp; N,N-Dimethyl-4-nitroso-3-(trimethylsilyl) aniline,&nbsp; 2-Methyl-7-phenylindole, 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-Heptamethyltrisiloxane.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The chloroform extract of <em>Chaetomorpha media</em> (C.Ag.) Kuetzing showed the presence of various phytochemicals which can be used as medicine to cure various diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anusathya Priya P, John Peter Paul J, Iniya Udhaya C, Fredrick Raja E, Ponnudurai G, Muthu Sheeba M ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/773 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 15:56:28 +0530 GC-MS Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Colpomenia Sinuosa (Mertens Ex Roth) Derb. Et Sol. From Manapad in the South East Coast of Tamil Nadu, India http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/761 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The present study was carried out to explore the various secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds present in the methanolic extract of brown marine macro alga <em>Colpomenia sinuosa </em>(Mertens Ex Roth) Derb. Et Sol.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> The plant materials were collected from Hare Island, located in Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India. The characterization of biochemicals was carried out using GC-MS analysis.</p> <p><strong>Intervention:</strong> Among the different solvent extracts, methanolic extract was intervened in the present study</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong> The main measurement results in the study were to predict the presence of various phytochemicals in the methanolic extract of <em>Colpomenia sinuosa </em>(Mertens Ex Roth) Derb. Et Sol.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The analysis revealed seventeen bioactive compounds such as z,z-6,28-Heptatriactontadien-2-one (25.88%), 2-Hexadecanol (2.18%), L-(+)-Ascorbic acid (25.13%), N-propyl 11-octadecenoate (9.41%), 3-Methyl-2-(2-oxopropyl)furan (2.02%), Hexadecane (1.01%), Hentriacontane (9.00%), Palmitaldehyde (4.22%), Tritetracontane (2.42%), Squalene (1.03%), Trans-5-Hexyl-1,4-dioxane-2-carboxylic acid (4.12%), Methyl 2-hydroxy-eicosanoate (3.25%), Cyclopentane,1,1,3-trimethyl- (2.15%), Palmitoleic acid (1.64%), Vitamin E (0.18%),&nbsp; 2-Pentacosanone (0.22%) and 3-Methylene-1-oxa-spiro[3,6]decane (0.14%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The bioactive compounds from methanolic extract of <em>Colpomenia sinuosa </em>(Mertens Ex Roth) Derb. Et Sol. may have the potential effect against various diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> G. Ponnudurai, J. John Peter Paul ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/761 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:01:07 +0530 Quantitative Analysis in Traditional Knowledge of Wild Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Livestock Diseases by The Paliyar’s Tribe of Sadhuragiri Hillstamil Nadu, India http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/784 <p>An ethno-medicinal study of ethno-veterinary medicines among the local indigenous peoples of the villages of Sadhuragiri Hills, Southern Western Ghats, Virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu, India were carried out during the period of July 2016 and March – 2018. About 90% interviewed people gained their knowledge of traditional medicine from their parents and grandparents and others gained from neighbors and co-producers. It has been observed that older persons and traditional healers have greater knowledge about traditional medicines than younger persons. Ethno-veterinary uses of 120 species belonging to 59 families have been documented in this study for their interesting therapeutic properties of various veterinary ailments such as Wound healing, Fever, Diarrhoea, Cold, Skin diseases, Bone fracture, Foot and mouth, Poison bite, Eye diseases, Low milk yielding, Fly repellent, Stomach pain, Anti-inflammatory, Cough, Swelling, Throat pain, Ear pain, Anorexia <em>etc</em>. Leaves thirty one species (37.2%) followed by Seed, Bark, Fruit, Latex and latex were most frequently used plant parts for ethno veterinary medicine. Usually fresh materials were used for medicinal preparation. The most frequently used routes of drug administration have been oral followed by dermal. Our study recommend that, documenting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area and for validation of these plant preparations for ethno-veterinary treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aadhan Kamatchi, Anand Subramaniam Parvathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/784 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:04:41 +0530 GC-MS Profiling and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extract of Fresh Seeds of Miracle Tree-Moringa Oleifera lam http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/783 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong><em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. or munga is one of the most important plant widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. The plant is also known as Horse - radish tree, Drumstick tree. Every part of this plant contains a valuable medicinal feature. It contain rich source of the vitamin A, vitamin C and milk protein. Current research studies were carried out for evaluating the antioxidant activities and GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of fresh seeds of <em>Moringa oleifera.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Antioxidant activities such as DPPH˙ radical, Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical, ABTS<sup>●+</sup> radical cation, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction were carried out forthe ethanol extract of fresh seeds of <em>Moringa oleifera</em>. Identification of the active compounds present in the ethanol extract of fresh seeds of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> were detected by GC-MS profiling.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The maximum DPPH˙radical and Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical scavenging activities were79.28±0.43% and 63.8±0.26% at 120 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub>valueswere20.12 µg/mL and 85.91 µg/mL concentrations respectively. The maximum ABTS<sup>●+ </sup>radical cation scavenging activity was 83.26±0.37% at 12 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 6.10 µg/mL concentration respectively. The maximum Mo<sup>6+ </sup>reduction and Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction were86.83±0.25% and 61.86±0.42% at 120 µg/mL concentration and the RC<sub>50 </sub>valueswere 18.20 µg/mL and 46.20 µg/mL concentrations respectively.Flavone, 7-Chloro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-benzodiazepin-2-one, Kaempferol, Pyrimidine,5-ethyl-2-[4-(4-ethylcyclohexyl)phenyl]-, 8-Carbethoxy-1-methyl-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]azepin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid were the phytochemical compounds revealed from the ethanol extract of fresh seeds of <em>Moringa oleifera </em>by GC-MS profiling.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The selected antioxidant methods and the GC-MS analysis proves <em>Moringa oleifera </em>as an potent antioxidant agent and thereby scavenge the free radicals existing in the environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Arumugam P, Saraswathi K, Sivaraj C ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/783 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:06:20 +0530 Formulation and Evaluation of Gel Containing Fluconazole Microsponges http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/753 <p>The aim of current study was to develop gel containing Fluconazole microsponges; the microsponges were prepared by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method using eudragit RL100 the gel was prepared and evaluated for various parameters and Invitro release studies. All the factors studied had an influence on the physical characteristics of the microsponges. In vitro dissolution results showed that the release rate of Fluconazole was modified in all formulations. The Fluconazole-loaded Eudragit RL 100 microspheres showed a good release characteristic and were stable under the condition studied.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shoaeb Mohammad Syed, Satyapal S Gaikwad, Sachin Wagh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/753 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 19:17:19 +0530 Liposome: A Novel Carrier for Targeting Drug Delivery System http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/802 <p>Targeted drug delivery, sometimes called Smart drug delivery is a method of delivering active molecules to the target site by increasing the concentration of active molecules and produces the desired effects without disturbing the bio-environment. This system is based on a technique that delivers precise amount of an active ingredient for a prolonged period of time to a targeted diseased area inside the body. This helps to maintain the specified plasma and tissue drug levels within the body, thereby preventing any harm to the healthy tissue via the drug. It is advantageous in terms of reduction in the frequency of administration, having a more uniform effect of the drug, reduction of side-effects and reduced fluctuation in circulating drug levels. Among several vesicular drug delivery systems, Liposome have attracted a lot of attention than alternative systems because of several meritable features like excellent chemical and biological stability, good solubilization power, promote intracellular delivery of bio-active molecules, reduce the uptake of macrophages and&nbsp; encapsulate each hydrophilic in addition as lipophilic drug molecules. The focus of this review is to discuss liposome with special emphasis on targeting of drugs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vrunda Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/802 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:07:42 +0530 Detection of Impurities in Bulk Drug and Capsule of Fluconazole http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/769 <p>Identification of impurities and their amounts in the fluconazole bulk drug and capsule FLUNAC<sup>TM</sup> (150 mg) were done using HPLC with diode array detector. The composition of mobile phase was acetonitrile:water (85:15 %) with flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and detected at 260 ± 1 nm. Two impurities (one is known impurity A and other unknown impurity) were detected in the bulk drug and also in capsule FLUNAC (150 mg).&nbsp; The total amounts of impurities in fluconazole bulk drug and capsule were 0.368% and 0.392% respectively. In conclusion, the total amount of impurities was less than 1% which is acceptable.</p> A Yadav, V. Sharma, S. Tripathi, S. L. Soni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/769 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:14:47 +0530 A Review on Herbal Medicinal Plant for Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/799 <p>Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. It is characterized by chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenism leading to symptoms of irregular menstrual cycles, hirsutism, acne and infertility. Insulin resistance and elevated levels of male hormones (androgens) are associated with PCOS. The sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise and dietary variations and stress etc., are also the contributory factors. Various plants like Panax ginseng, Punica granatum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Tribulus terrestris, Symplocos racemosa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cocus nucifera etc., proved active in the treatment of PCOS. In this review, attempts have been made to summarize the important medicinal plants which are used in treatment or prevention of PCOS. Special attention is given to the role of insulin resistance and the potential utility of insulin sensitizers in management of PCOS.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Karishma Yadav, Priyanka Ghadge, Aryan Langeh, Shankar Kalbhare, Prajkta Phadtare, Rupali Bhoite ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/799 Mon, 28 Sep 2020 05:31:28 +0530 Anti-COVID-19 natural products are spotlights for drug discovery and development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/785 <p>Traditional plants and marine natural products have plausible medicinal compounds of anti-COVID-19 potential. They became spotlights for the development and discovery of new marketable antivirals. The global COVID-19 pandemic invigorated medicinal chemists to evolve new feasible ideas for the non-toxic medications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rajendra Singh Pawar, Mayank Dimri, Alok Maithani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/785 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:19:25 +0530 Cellulose Nanocrystals: A Versatile Nanoplatform http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/786 <p>The developing natural and ecological awareness has driven endeavors for advancement of new inventive products for different end-use applications. Nanotechnology executes a significant contribution in the improvement of such product. Cellulose nanocrystals are one of a kind nanomaterial obtained from the most copius and practically boundless natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have obtained remarkable interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals basically derived from naturally existing cellulose fibres, are biodegradable and inexhaustible in nature and consequently they fill in as an eco-friendly material for most applications. Considering the ever-expanding interdisciplinary research being done on cellulose nanocrystals, this review means to collate the information accessible about the preparation technique, modification and application of cellulose nanocrystals. Cellulose nanocrystals can be sourced from biomass, plants, or microbes, depending on genuinely basic, versatile, and productive isolation methodology. Mechanical, synthetic, and enzymatic treatments, or a blend of these, can be utilized to separate nanocellulose from natural sources. Nanocrystalline cellulose surface modification strategies are commonly used to introduce either charged or hydrophobic moieties, and comprises amidation, esterification, etherification, silylation, polymerization, urethanization, sulfonation, and phosphorylation. This nanomaterial is a promising contender for applications in fields, for example, biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films and so forth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lekha Dhurjad, Dhanshri Sagle, Amol Deshmukh, Minal Narkhede ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/786 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:20:47 +0530 Fast Dissolving Tablets- A Novel Approach http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/636 <p>Fast dissolving tablets emerge as one of the popular and widely accepted dosage forms, especially for pediatric patients because of incomplete development of the muscular and nervous system and a case of geriatric patients suffering from Parkinson’s disorder or hand tremors. Few solid dosage forms like capsules and tablets are present days facing the problems like difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), resulting in many incidences of non-compliance and making the therapy ineffective. Oral dosage form and oral route are the most preferred route of administration for various drugs have limitations like first-pass metabolism, psychiatric patients, bedridden and uncooperative patients. FDTs are disintegrating or dissolve quickly in the saliva without a need of water. Fast dissolving tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably faster, within a few seconds (less than 60 seconds), and those are real fast-dissolving tablets. FDTs formulations contain super disintegrants to enhance the disintegration rate of a tablet in the buccal cavity. FDTs have advantages such as easy portability and manufacturing, accurate dosing, good chemical and physical stability and an ideal alternative for geriatric and pediatric patients. FDTs have disintegrated quickly, absorb faster so, in vitro drug release time improve and this property of drugs (dosage form) enhanced bioavailability. FDT formulations have the advantage of both conventional tablet formulation and liquid dosage form. There are several technologies that are conventional or patented based on spray drying, cotton candy process, sublimation, melt granulation, direct compression freezes drying/lyophilization, phase transition process, mass extrusion, etc. have been developed for manufacturing of FDTs. In this review contain brief information about FDTs including definition, advantages, needs or requirements of FDTs, salient features of FDTs, limitations, challenges to developing FDT, marketed formulations of fast dissolving tablets, etc</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hemraj R, Dilip Agarwal, Lokesh Choudhary, Amit Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/636 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:22:08 +0530 An Updated Review on Pharmacology and Toxicities Related to Chloramphenicol http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/671 <p>Chloramphenicol is a antimicrobial drug primarily its bacteriostatic, though at high concentration it shows bactericidal actions on some bacteria e.g. H. Influenzae. Initially chloramphenicol is obtained from sterptomycesvenezuelae in 1947, now its synthesized chemically and all the commercial product is synthetic. Chloramphenicol displays a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity by specifically inhibiting the bacterial proteinsynthesis. In certain but important cases, it also exhibits bactericidal activity, namely against thethree most common causes of meningitis, Haemophilusinfluenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae andNeisseria meningitidis. Resistance to Chloramphenicol has been frequently reported and ascribed to a variety ofmechanisms. However, the most important concerns that limit its clinical utility relate to side effectssuch as neurotoxicity and hematologic disorders. In this review, we present previous and current research on Chloramphenicol and its derivatives with improved pharmacological properties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kanti Kumar Singhal, MD Mukim, Chetan Kumar Dubey, Jagdish Chandra Nagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/671 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:26:27 +0530 A Review On: Development and Validation of HPLC in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/656 <p>HPLC is the dominant separation technique in modern pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis because it results in highly efficient separations and in most cases provides high detection sensitivity. Most of the drugs in multi component dosage forms can be analyzed by HPLC method because of the several advantages like rapidity, specificity, accuracy, precision and ease of automation in this method. HPLC methods development and validation play important roles in new discovery, development, manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs and various other studies related to humans and animals. An analytical procedure is developed to test a defined characteristic of the drug substance or drug product against established acceptance criteria for that characteristic. This review gives information regarding various stages involved in development and validation of HPLC method. Validation of HPLC method as per ICH Guidelines covers all the performance characteristics of validation, like Accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, range and limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness and system suitability testing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bharat Dadhich, Rakesh Goyal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/656 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:34:38 +0530 The Review on current treatments and therapies on COVID-19 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/800 <p>Coronavirus are enveloped RNA Virus related to family ‘Coronaviride’. In December 2019, many pneumonia cases reported by patients with unknown causes mainly associated with seafood and wet market in when China and they are clinically resembled with viral pneumonia at present time there is no antiviral drug&nbsp; for the treatment of COV infection but some drugs and therapies gives effective action in the treatment and prevention of the SAR-COV-1 and MERS COV and these particular drugs and therapies plays important role in prevention and cure of SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) such as Hydroxy-chloroquine and Chloroquine, Remdesivir, Ivermectin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Favipiravir and therapies may include convalescent plasma therapy and corticosteroids.Hydroxyl-chloroquine and chloroquine&nbsp; exibites its action against SARS-COV-2 by blocking the entry of viral cell inhibiting glycosylation of host receptor Ivermectin show anti SARS-COV-2 action by binding of Ivermectin to the imp α/β1 binding to viral proteins. This particular action prevents the viral from entering the nucleus which leads to reducing inhibition and antiviral response. Remdisivir (G-S5734) is an RdRP polymerase inhibitor and exhibites anti SARS-COV-2 action by inhibiting viral nucleic acid synthesis. Patients treated with convalscent plasma therapy and corticosteroids gives less mortality rate and has no adverse effect .The speed and volume of clinical preliminaries propelled research expected treatments for COVID-19 feature both the need and capacity to treat excellent proof even in pandemic no treatment demonstrate effective to date.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vaibhav R Bharad, Omprasad R Deshmukh, Swaraj M Wagh, Pavan Folane, R H Kale, K R Biyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/800 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:36:21 +0530 A Review on Anti-Stress Activity of Piper Methysticum http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/688 <p>On the basis of study conducted on the plant <em>Piper methysticum </em>G. (Forst), Piperaceae, it was found that Kava has storage of active constituents present in its roots and rhizomes. Traditionally its root part is used to relax body and mind and promote restful sleep, therefore it is necessary to explore its importance as excellent nervine herb. Literature survey revealed that kavalactones are responsible for biological activity which include local anaesthetic, antispasmodic, Musculo-relaxant, antimycotic, sedative, anticonvulsive, analgesic, antianxiety and neuroprotective effects etc. which proves it has potent psychoactive ability but, the claim of therapeutic efficacy of the plant as an anti-stress or adaptogen yet has not been scientifically scrutinized. However, synthetic drugs are widely prescribed to reduce stress and stress induced symptoms but their soporific effect, risk of dependence and withdrawal effects limits their long-term use. Based on clinical studies Kava shows its efficacy within one week at moderate dose. Evidently, the herbal formulations claimed to enhance physical endurance; mental functions and non-specific resistance to withstand stress without altering the physiological functions of the body hence, it is essential to study its safety and efficacy for its therapeutic use.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ankit Sharma, Rahul Anchariya, Chetan Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/688 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:37:50 +0530 Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by HPLC http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/670 <p>Many different strategies of high performance liquid chromatographic method development are used today. This review describes a strategy for the systematic development of High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods. HPLC is an analytical tool which is able to detect, separate and quantify the drug, its various impurities and drug related degradants that can form on synthesis or storage. It involves the understanding of chemistry of drug substance and facilitates the development of analytical method. A number of chromatographic parameters were evaluated in order to optimize the method. An appropriate mobile phase, column, column temperature, wavelength and gradient must be found that affords suitable compatibility and stability of drug as well as degradants and impurities. Forced degradation or alternatively referred as stress testing and it demonstrates specificity when developing stability indicating methods, especially when little is known about potential degradation products. Force degradation studies are helpful in development and validation of stability-indicating methodology, determination of degradation pathways of drug substances and drug products, discernment of degradation products in formulations that are related to drug substances versus those that are related to non–drug substances (e.g. excipients).</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong>&nbsp;</p> Hrithik Bhardwaj, Rakesh Kumar Goyal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/670 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:39:24 +0530 Rasayana Drugs Promise Better Anti-Covid-19 Medications http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/738 <p>COVID-19virus is a worldwide tragedy. The western research endeavors are trying to findout an effective medication against this virus. The rasayana drugs promise rewarding medications. Their phytochemicals were studied with scientific rationality against COVID-19 virus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank Dimri, Virbal Singh Rajwar, Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/738 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 16:41:33 +0530 Aptamer as a Targeted Drug Delivery http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/790 <p>Aptamers are the synthetic oligonucleotides which are short single-stranded in nature with having three-dimensional shape or structure. From the past few years, Aptamers as inventive targeting molecules play an important role in the biomedical field. Aptamers are generated by the method termed as SELEX. Aptamers have a unique feature in which they bind to the desired targets or the receptors on the cell membrane utilizing their high affinity and specificity. So, for drug delivery as targeting ligands, aptamers can be provided. In the research field, for monitoring the environment and ensure the food safety aptamers are generally used. They also used as a therapeutic agent and plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. An Aptamer is a fascinating tool that is mainly used in molecular biology applications, as well as potential pharmaceutical agents and the reason behind this fascinating tool, is the various unique properties of the aptamer. Aptamers have more advantages over antibodies. They can be selected against bacteria and viruses. This review provides an overview of the development of Cell-Specific aptamers for targeted drugs along with the advantages, uses, and applications of aptamers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sadar Mayur Devsing, Rahul Sarode, Saloni Khandelwal, Kailash R Biyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/790 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 17:28:40 +0530 A Review on Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/692 <p>The development of the pharmaceuticals brought a revolution in human health. These pharmaceuticals would serve their intent only if they are free from impurities and are administered in an appropriate amount. To make drugs serve their purpose various chemical and instrumental methods were developed at regular intervals which are involved in the estimation of drugs. These pharmaceuticals may develop impurities at various stages of their development, transportation and storage which makes the pharmaceutical risky to be administered thus they must be detected and quantitated. For this analytical instrumentation and methods play an important role. This review highlights the role of the analytical instrumentation and the analytical methods in assessing the quality of the drugs. The review highlights a variety of analytical techniques such as titrimetric, chromatographic, spectroscopic, electrophoretic, and electrochemical and their corresponding methods that have been applied in the analysis of pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rakesh Kumar, Mukesh Bansal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/692 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 17:36:55 +0530 A Review on Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrus Limetta http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/698 <p>Hepatic diseases are a major worldwide health problem, with frequently found in developing countries. They are mainly caused by uses of high doses of chemicals and some drugs. There is no effective drug available that stimulates liver function, offer protection to the liver from damage or help to regenerate hepatic cells. There-fore there is urgent need, for effective drugs to replace/add those in current use. Medicinal herbs are significant source of pharmaceutical drugs. Latest trends have shown increasing demand of phytoconstituents from some medicinal herbs and those medicinal herbs have proven hepatoprotective potential. A number of herbal preparations are available in the market. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from medicinal plants that have been tested in hepatotoxicity models using modern scientific system. In this century clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of&nbsp;some herbs in the treatment of liver related disease. Hence, this review article contributes to the knowledge of reported indigenous plants, which are prevalent for prevention and treatment of liver disorders.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hrishabh Jangid, Chetan Dubey, Rahul Anchariya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/698 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 17:42:47 +0530 Simultaneous Estimation of Admixture drugs by RP-HPLC: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/699 <p>Recently, high demand of high-throughput analyses with high sensitivity and selectivity to molecules and drugs in different classes with different physical-chemical properties and a reduction in analysis time—is a principal milestone for novel methodologies that researchers are trying to achieve especially when analytical procedures are applied to clinical purposes. In addition, to avoid high doses of a single drug that could cause serious side effects, multi-drug therapies are often used to treat numerous diseases. For these reasons, the demand for methods that allow the rapid analysis of mixed compounds has increased in recent years. In order to respond to these needs, new methods and instruments have been developed. However, often the complexity of a matrix can require a long time for the preparation and processing of the samples. Different problems in terms of components, types of matrices, compounds and physical-chemical complexity are encountered when considering drugs association profiles for quantitative analyses. This review addresses not only recently optimized procedures such as chromatographic separation, but also methods that have allowed us to obtain accuracy (precision and trueness), sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analyses for cases of drug associations.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shipra Saini, Sulekha Mandal, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/699 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 17:48:57 +0530 Colon-Targeted Oral Drug Delivery Systems: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/689 <p>The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. This review, mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process. New systems and technologies have been developed for colon targeting and to overcome pervious method’s limitations. Colon targeting holds a great potential and still need more innovative work. This review article discusses, in brief, introduction of colon, factor effecting colonic transition, colonic diseases and the novel and emerging technologies for colon targeting.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lokesh Choudhary, Amit Jain, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/689 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 17:55:44 +0530 Drug Repurposing: An Overview http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/634 <p>Drug repurposing (also known as drug repositioning)&nbsp;means finding novel indications for currently marketed drugs. This strategy may reduce the costs of new drug development and advance the delivery of new therapeutics to patients with incurable diseases. By specifically regulating multiple targets, more effective drugs can be developed through polypharmacology. Drug repositioning is underpinned by the fact that common molecular pathways contribute to many different diseases.&nbsp;Various data-driven and experimental approaches have been suggested for the identification of repurposable drug candidates; however, there are also major technological and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed. In this Review, we present approaches used for drug repurposing, discuss the challenges faced by the repurposing community and recommend innovative ways by which these challenges could be addressed to help realize the full potential of drug repurposing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahendra Saini, Nikhita Parihar, Shankar Lal Soni, Vandana Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/634 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 18:13:57 +0530 Revisiting Covid-19: The Novel Disease That Shattered the World http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/693 <p>COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease which is caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease was initially originated from Wuhan in China. SARS-CoV-2 has a similarity with the SARS-CoV virus and MERS virus. However, the fatality rate in infection caused due to SARS-CoV-2 is less as compared to the infection caused by SARS-CoV and MERS virus. Initially, the WHO had declared the disease as Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and later the disease was categorized as pandemic disease. The disease had affected more than 200 countries. The USA tops the list with the highest number of infected patients. The ACE is the primary receptor of this virus, and the transmission is through both direct and indirect contact. The disease is diagnosed through the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and complimented with a chest computed tomography scan. There is no specific treatment of COVID-19, and supportive management is recommended in severe cases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rohit Jain, Dilip Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/693 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 18:16:00 +0530 Indole-3-Glyoxylamide- An Important Scaffold for Anticancer Activity http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/803 <p>Synthetic indolylglyoxyl amides were identified as a new group of microtubule destabilizing anticancer agents, with the most active derivative N-(pyridine-4-yl)-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)indol-3-yl]glyoxylamide (Indibulin, D-24851, ) possessing the promising in vitro activity against SKOV3 ovarian cancer, U87 glioblastoma and ASPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Indole-3-glyoxylamides are an attractive lead series for continuing development as potential therapeutic agents. A number of Indole-3-glyoxylamides have previously been reported as tubulin polymerization inhibitors; exert a cytotoxic effect against multiple cancer cell lines. Recently, substituted indolylglyoxylamides were found to exhibit anticancer, antiprion and anti HIV activity. This developed an interest in reviewing lead based on indole-3-glyoxylamide. This review focused on overview of drug molecule of indole-3-glyoxylamide. We hope that the review could give a guide to develop newer anti-cancer agents with greater potency against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancers in the future.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> C. Buvana, Avinash Raveendran, R. Suresh, Y. Haribabu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/803 Sat, 15 Aug 2020 18:26:24 +0530