Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> en-US <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) (Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi) Sun, 15 Oct 2023 17:20:30 +0530 OJS 60 The Cytotoxic Activities of n-Hexane Extract of Pumpkin Seed (Cucurbita moschata) on WiDr Colon Cancer Cell and HeLa Cervical Cancer Cell <p>Colon cancer and cervical cancer are types of cancer with a high prevalence, contributing 10% and 3.1% respectively of the total new cancer cases. Nutrition and dietary factors play an important role in human carcinogenesis. Natural plants contain substances that can be beneficial to human health. One such plant is the pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata). Pumpkin seeds are thought to have many biological activities for health, such as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxic activity of n-hexane extract of pumpkin seed against colon (WiDr) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells using the MTT Assay method. The method used in this study consisted of the preparation of plant extracts, phytochemical screening, total content of metabolites. The results proved that the n-hexane extract of pumpkin seed was observed containing flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids. The content of highest total content, namely flavonoid compounds as much as 616.46 mg/L. The n-hexane extract of pumpkin seed showed cytotoxic activity for WiDr cells and HeLa cells with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 193.44 µg/mL and 237.702 µg/mL, respectively. The results of this study can be concluded that n-hexane extract of pumpkin seed can be used as a chemopreventive agent, due to the moderate cytotoxic test results.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Annisa Krisridwany, Dhecella Winy Cintya Ningrum, Fitria Susilowati, Rima Octavia, Aji Winanta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:33:21 +0530 Causes of Abortions Occurring in Red Goats from Maradi, Tessaoua and Madarounfa-Niger <p>Abortion, the termination of gestation with expulsion of a non-viable fetus, is a complex process that includes embryonic death and clinical abortion. This subject is of major concern because of its economic and health implications.The aim of this study is to identify the various possible causes of abortion, particularly in the Maradi Red goat. This study used targeted sampling at the Maradi Caprine Centre and in two other departments. From a total of 452 sera analysed by indirect ELISA, 65 (32.5%) were positive for chlamydia, 45 (22.5%) for toxoplasmosis and 0 (0.00%) for brucellosis. To this end, the veterinary and public health services need to reinforce their collaboration in order to establish a programme for controlling the most common zoonoses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mama Agnès Tea, Lanan Wassy Soromou, Dieudonné Tialla, Fati Mounkaila Moussa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 23:07:50 +0530 Investigation of Anti Inflammatory Activity of Triphala Hydrogels in Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema Model <p>Inflammation is a reaction of a living vascularized tissue to an injury, conventional or synthetic drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases are inadequate, it sometimes has serious stroke effects. So, number of herbal medicines are recommended for the treatment of inflammation that has no side effects. Hence our study focused to investigate bioactive compounds for anti-inflammatory activity. Folk medicine and ethnopharmacological data can provide a broad range of plants with promising anti-inflammatory activity. Triphala, an ayurvedic formula composed of three different plants. Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia bellerica Roxb(Combretaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica L is widely used for various microbial infections. Triphala is now evaluated for its anti-inflammatory action. Triphala is formulated into a hydrogel of different concentrations and is evaluated for in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by membrane stabilization method at 100, 250 and 500 mg/ml and in-vivo evaluation is done by Carrageenan -induced paw edema method. The results obtained are compared with standard NSAID diclofenac hydrogel. The prepared hydrogel of triphala showed a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory potential in in-vivo and in-vitro methods which provide scientific basis for anti-inflammatory activity of Triphala.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sireesha Kalva, Neha Andhi, Ramya Sree Yenni, P. Sai Ganesh, A. Madhu, M. Nihal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:35:07 +0530 The Effect of Nutrition Intervention on Cognitive Function of Children Aged Between 6 and 12 Years – A Study from South India <p>Nutrition is a fundamental cornerstone of good health, productivity, and overall functional capacity. Food that is safe, plentiful, and nutritious is essential for child growth and development. Children who do not grow properly during childhood may not be able to compensate for the growth loss later in life, even with an adequate diet. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of supplementation of the formulated health mixes which weremade out of selected potential ingredients for undernourished children and nutrition education on child nutrition to their mothers.&nbsp; Based on the inclusion criteria, it is designed as an intervention study with 90 children aged 6 to 12 years. Children were divided into three groups (CG, EGI, and EGII), each with 30 children. The raw materials were obtained, processed, powdered, and blended to create a health mix for three months of supplementation. The children were able to take 50gm of health mix each day as mid-morning and mid-evening snacks in the form of ladoos. The results showed that the children in Experimental Group II who got health mix supplementation as well as health and nutrition education for their mothers improved in nutritional status and cognitive performance. This study provides fresh insights for future policy and intervention programs.</p> <p><em><strong>&nbsp;</strong></em></p> Dr. Anitha. R, Dr. Pa. Raajeswari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:38:18 +0530 In silico and in vitro testing Ascorbic Acid Protects Nicotine-Treated Human Erythrocytes <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Nicotine is a naturally occurring drug that is highly addictive and is commonly found in tobacco products. Tobacco products are one of the leading causes of lung and oral cancer worldwide. Because blood is the primary organ in contact with nicotine, our goal in this study was to confirm its effect on blood. We also investigated the protective role of ascorbic acid on nicotine toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Various blood toxicity studies were carried out using in-vitro and in-silico methods. Nicotine-induced haematological perturbation resulted in haemolysis, decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and decreased total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> The results showed that nicotine has a negative effect on red blood cells in the lysis assay and causes clots to form in nicotine-treated samples in the blood clotting analysis. Furthermore, the in-Silico method validated the in-vitro results. According to our findings, ascorbic acid has blood-protective properties. Ascorbic acid was discovered to increase SOD, catalase, and total antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid also reduced the damage caused by nicotine to RBCs in the lysis assay and demonstrated a high level of protection against the formation of clots when the samples were treated with nicotine. The findings suggest that ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, can protect against nicotine-induced haematological damage.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Pratikeswar Panda, Arpita Sahu, Sagarika Mohapatra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:40:32 +0530 Effect of Lubricants on Properties of Conventional Tablets of Antihypertensive Drugs from Different Biopharmaceutical Classification System <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is a long-term medical condition in which blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. Hypertension causes coronary artery disease, stroke, heartfailure; kidney diseases over come hypertension, antihypertensive drugs are used.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of present work was to find out effectsof lubricants on properties of conventionaltablets containing antihypertensive drugs from different BCS class. Antihypertensive drugs suchas Metoprolol succinate, and Atenolol were selected which represented BCS class I, and II respectively.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Lubricants are the essential components of all solid dosage forms. Sodium stearyl fumarate, a hydrophilic lubricant was compared with Magnesium stearate,a conventional hydrophobic lubricant. Uncoatedtabletswereprepared either by direct compression or wet granulation technique employing sodium stearyl fumarate or magnesium stearate as a lubricant at 1% or 2%, mixing time of lubricants was varied as 3 and 6mins.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Irrespective of class of drug, concentration, mixing time and processing method sodium stearyl fumarate turned out to be effective as tablet lubricant than Magnesium stearate. Both the Lubricants, when used at lower concentration and shorter mixing time resulted in superior tablets properties.Direc tcompression method gave better results than wet granulation technique. Both Sodium stearyl fumarate and Magnesium stearate (1%, 3min) were subjected to storage at40<sup>0</sup>± 2<sup>0</sup>C/ 75% RH for 90 days to check effect of aging and storage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to at the end of storage period up on investigating for different tablet properties there were no significan tchanges observed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dindawar Kavita, B.M Supriya, Kolageri Shivanand ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Nov 2023 08:35:21 +0530 Parkinson Disease: A Review <p>Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative progressive disorder which caused due to increase level of Ach and lack of dopamine inside the brain. The dopaminergic cell death were found inside the brain in case of Parkinson disease. It’s a type of motor deficiency disease. Many symptoms like bradykinesia, tremor, postural instability, loss of sense of smell etc. are arises in Parkinson disease and there is no specific cure for Parkinson. A molecular biomarker is important to find because it differentiate the Parkinson from other disease and this disease mainly consultant by the neurologist. The management and treatment of Parkinson disease is based on some drugs, like levodopa, dopamine agonist, MAO-beta inhibitor, CoMT inhibitors and many more. They are used with or without in combination and Parkinson include various risk factor like herbicides, pesticides, metal exposure etc. Various type of surgical approaches. Deep brain stimulation are good for Parkinson patients. Nicotine, caffeine, hormone replacement therapy are the some protective factors which overcome the chances of Parkinson disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Annu Kumari, Muskan Gupta, Gaurav Rankawat, Abhishek Rankawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:43:11 +0530 Current and Future Treatments, Prevention, Diagnosis on Retinoblastoma <p>The most frequent intraocular cancer in children is retinoblastoma. All pediatric patients with retinoblastoma must undergo genetic testing as a crucial part of their treatment. Retinoblastoma can also extend to the brain and spine, among other parts of the body. MRI and CT scans are two imaging procedures that may be used to detect retinoblastoma. The size and location of the retinoblastoma tumor in your child determine the optimal course of treatment. Chemotherapy is a type of medication that can be used to treat cancer. Chemotherapy can aid in tumor reduction, enabling subsequent therapies like radiation therapy, cryotherapy, or laser therapy to target any remaining cancer cells. Early eye examinations are crucial for diagnosis and care. If detected early, retinal blastoma is frequently treatable. A hereditary mutation may cause retinal tumors (retinoblastoma). External beam radiation therapy, cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, thermotherapy, brachytherapy, and chemotherapy (intravitreal, intra-arterial, and systemic) are now included in the treatment of retinoblastoma in addition to the damaged globe. Long-term side effects of radiation and chemotherapy in retinoblastoma patients can include secondary cancers.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ashwin Singh Chouhan, Sohail Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:46:15 +0530 The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis <p>Numerous deaths from infectious diseases have raised public awareness of their dangers, promoting global antimicrobial research. However, antibiotic demand and use, on the other hand, have increased antibiotic levels in natural ecosystems. Natural selection and adaptation induced antibiotic resistance gene mutations in bacterial populations. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in ecosystems resulted in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, leading to a variety of antibiotic-resistant diseases on a global scale. This review paper provides an overview of the antibiotic discovery history, antibiotic screening techniques, and industrial antibiotic production processes. In addition, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and the antibiotics’ impact on the environment have been reviewed, and suggestions were given. The ecological perspective on antibiotic resistance has also been discussed. New drug development seems to be the prime requisite now to control microbes that no longer respond to the drug.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Keshav Kumar Jha, Subham Saini, Aman Raj, Shreyasi ., Hansraj Bishnoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Oct 2023 22:48:57 +0530