Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> The Risk of Transfusion of Transmissible HIV Infections in Sokoto, the North West of Nigeria http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/987 <p>The risk of transfusion of transmissible HIV infection was investigated amongst potential blood donors from three health care institutions in Sokoto, North West Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty (350) blood samples from study subjects were screened for HIV antibody using Determine kit for HIV 1&amp;2 (by Alere) and Uni-gold kit (biotech) for second antibody screening. All blood samples negative for the HIV antibodies using RDT were further screened for thep24 antigen using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results obtained showed that blood samples from 3(0.9%) study subjects were sero-positive for HIV antibody using the serial algorithm. There was no statistically significant difference (p=1.000) between the two RDT screening kits used. Nine blood donors 9(2.6%) were positive for HIV-1 p24-antigen using ELISA test. Overall results showed that the prevalence rate of HIV was 3.4% amongst all study subjects. However, sensitivity and specificity of RDT was 3.4% and 96% while the positive and negative predictive value was 100% and 97% respectively. The low incidence of 0.9% obtained using RDT clearly indicates that the antibody tests had failed to detect the newly infected blood donors. This is confirmed by the more sensitive and specific p24 antigen test.Thus, the risk of transmitting undetected HIV antigens from such sero-negative blood samples is expectedly high. Even though transmission of blood and blood products is a routine in our health care settings, it should only be done when benefit clearly outweighs the risk.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad U-K Raji H Muhammad R. H Faruq A Baki AS ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 1 5 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.987 Comparison of the Effects of Peppermint Aromatherapy and Intravenous Ondansentron on The Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (Ponv) Laparotomy with General Anesthesia http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1001 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is known as Post Operative Nausea And Vomiting (PONV). Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is multifactorial and is strongly influenced by physiological factors. PONV was defined as nausea and/or vomiting occurring 24 hours postoperatively. Non-pharmacological/complementary therapies that can be used to prevent and reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting include aromatherapy. Peppermint aromatherapy can be a quick onset alternative to antiemetic therapy and is easy to administer. <strong>Objective</strong>: The purpose of this study was to determine the difference between the effects of peppermint aromatherapy and intravenous ondansetron on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) laparotomy with general anesthesia at H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan and Network Hospital. <strong>Methods</strong>: This study is a clinical trial and uses a double-blind randomized controlled trial study design on subjects who underwent laparotomy surgery under general anesthesia at Haji Adam Malik Hospital and Network Hospital with 36 people with patients aged 18-65 years with ASA 1 and 2 physical status. who underwent laparotomy surgery under general anesthesia. <strong>Results</strong>: Statistically, there was a significant difference in PONV scores between the peppermint and ondansetron groups occurring at time T1 (15 minutes after treatment), where the p-value &lt;0.05. Meanwhile, at times T0, T2, T3, there was no statistically significant difference in the PONV scores between the two groups, where the p-value&gt; 0.05. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Peppermint aromatherapy was better at reducing postoperative laparotomy with general anesthesia than standard intravenous 4 mg of ondansetron therapy, especially in the early minutes after surgery.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Riani Wulandari Dadik Wahyu Wijaya Akhyar Hamonangan Nasution ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 6 10 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1001 Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of the Crude Root Extracts of Ixora Coccinea L (Rubiaceae) on Aedes Aegypti Larvae http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1019 <p>In this study, the larvicidal activity of the crude root extract of <em>Ixora coccinea</em> was carried out. 400g of the plant material each was dried pulverized and extracted with sufficient quantity of water, methanol and acetone separately. The extracts were dried, and used for larvicidal assay. The assay was carried out according WHO, 2005 guideline on larvicidal assay with some modifications. The activity was evaluated using six different concentrations of 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, and 5mg/ml in volume of 100ml of water. it was run in triplicate with control for each concentration. 20 healthy larvae of 3<sup>rd</sup> instarwas used for each of the triplicate and the control. The activity was monitored every 24 hours for 3 days. The number of death after every 24 hours was observed and recorded. The percentage mortality and the LC50 were calculated. Examination of the results showed that the acetone extract gave the highest mortality after 72 hours with 100% mortality and LC<sub>50</sub> of 0.8mg/ml. The methanol extract gave 51.7%mortality with the highest concentration of 5mg/ml used and LC<sub>50</sub> of 4.95mg/ml after 72 hours, while the aqueous extract gave 0%activity with the 5mg/ml highest concentration use after 72 hours. The result of this study showed that the acetone root extract of <em>Ixora coccinea</em>could further be worked on to isolated the active principle(s) with the larvicidal activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Okwubie Lambert Ajogwu Amarachi Sophia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 11 15 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1019 Method Development, Validation and Forced Degradation Studies For the Determination of Moxifloxacin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Using UV Spectroscopy http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/983 <p>The objective of this work was to develop and validate spectrophotometric method for moxifloxacin for analysis. A very simple, unique, novel, reliable and easy method of spectrophotometric estimation in UV-region has been developed for the assay of moxifloxacin tablet formulation and also to perform forced degradation studies.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> water was used as diluents to perform all the validation parameters and stress studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> ICH guidelines were adopted during the method development and the method was validated statistically by calculating RSD and %RSD. The drug obeys Beer’s lamberts law at 1-10 mcg/ml concentration. Accuracy, Linearity, precision and robustness LOD at 3.3 ppb levels, LOQ at 11.2 ppb levels was performed. % of drug Degradations at different parameters were determined.</p> <p>Conclusion: - This method can be used for the routine laboratory analysis and can extend the studies to chromatographic techniques.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. Aruna K. Bhavya Sri M. Sumakanth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 16 20 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.983 Ketorolac Tromethamine for Sustained Ocular Delivery; Novel In-Situ Gels Development and Evaluation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/984 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Ophthalmic ketorolac&nbsp;is used to treat itchy eyes caused by allergies. It also is used to treat swelling and redness (inflammation) that can occur after cataract surgery.&nbsp;Ketorolac&nbsp;is in a class of medications called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Ocular bioavailability is always poor from conventional ophthalmic drops due to spillage and nasolachrymal drainage. Ocular in situ gels can increase the drug residence time thus increasing bioavailability. Polyacrylic acid (Carbopol 934) was used as the gelling agent in combination with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel K4M) which acted as a viscosity enhancing agent. Compatibility studies of the drug excipients were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry. The prepared formulations were characterized for clarity, pH, drug content, sol-to-gel transition by scanning electron microscopy, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, ocular irritation and stability.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>FTIR spectras revealed that, there was no interaction between LEV and excipients. The formulated gels were transparent, uniform in consistency and had spreadability with a pH range of 7.1 to 7.4. Rheological studies revealed that the formulations were psuedoplastic in nature, drug content of sterile in situ gels was found to be 92-98%.Release kinetic study showed that the formulation followed first order diffusion controlled and the optimized formulations was having good antibacterial efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The said promising formulation (F4) would be able to offer benefits such as increase residence time, prolonged drug release, reduction in frequency of administration and thereby definitely prove to improve the patient compliance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rohit Kumar Vandana Sharma Mukesh Sharma S. L Soni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 21 30 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.984 Acute Toxicity Study and Anti-Nociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract of Aesculus Indica Seeds on Experimental Animal Models http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/986 <p><em>Aesculus indica</em>, widely known as the horse chestnut tree, has long been used as antiangiogenic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiviral and antifungal. Ttraditionally it has been used as medicine for the treatment of skin diseases, rheumatism and different pain conditions. The current study was undertaken to investigate possible effects of ethanol extract of seeds of plant in experimentally produced pain in animals because there were no scientific publications on the use of <em>Aesculus indica</em> seeds for anti-nociceptive activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, Saponins, and phenolic substances in the extract. The OECD guideline 423 was followed for acute toxicity testing.At a dose of 2000 mg/kg, the extract was confirmed to be safe. The anti-nociceptive effect of three distinct dose levels of extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) was tested in Swiss albino mice using a hot plate, tail immersion test, and acetic acid induced writhing. Extract had strong anti-nociceptive efficacy (P &lt; 0.001) in a hot plate test. The extract significantly increased the tail withdrawal reaction in the tail immersion test (P &lt; 0.001).The extract considerably reduced the number of writhes in the acetic acid writhing test (P &lt; 0.001). The findings indicate that the extract has substantial anti-nociceptive effect.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Priyanka R More Atish B Velhal Vitthal J Chaware Vivek Kumar K. Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 31 38 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.986 Formulation and Evaluation of Paracetamol Effervescent Tablet http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/982 <p>Oral dosage forms are the most popular way of taking medication, despite having some disadvantages compared with other methods like risk of slow absorption of the medicament, which can be overcome by administering the drug in liquid form, therefore, possibly allowing the use of a lower dosage. However, instability of many drugs in liquid dosage form limits its use. Effervescent technique can be used as alternate to develop a dosage form which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. The tablet is added into a glass of water just before administration and the drug solution or dispersion is to be drunk immediately. The tablet is quickly broken apart by internal liberation of CO2 in water due to interaction between tartaric acid and citric acid with alkali metal carbonates or bicarbonates in presence of water. Due to liberation in CO<sub>2</sub> gas, the dissolution of API in water as well as taste masking effect is enhanced Along with the development of new pharmaceutical technique, effervescent tablet are more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. In present work an attempt has been made to formulate an effervescent tablet containing immediate release of paracetamol using various acids and bases. In present work we are used different acids and bases in different concentration. The formulation of tablets was done by using wet granulation as well as dry granulation in that technique wet granulation which was found acceptable. Then formulated tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, and disintegration time . From study it was concluded that F5 shows the better result than the F1, F2, and F3 &amp; F4.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhavana Dnyandeo Tambe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 47 51 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.982 Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Leaves Extract of Pithecellobium Dulce In Experimental Animals http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/985 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of leaves extract of <em>Pithecellobiumdulce</em> in experimental rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>For the generation of Hepatotoxicity ,paracetamol (2g/kg) was administered orally for&nbsp; 7days, accompanied by a 7-day dose of Ethanolic extract of <em>Pithecellobiumdulce</em>leaves(100mg/kg,&nbsp; 200mg/kg, and400mg/kg, p.o.)using 1 % w/v CMC as a vehicle.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From the present investigation, it was observed that ethanolic extract of <em>Pithecellobium dulce </em>have shown significant reduction in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT),serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT),alkaline phosphatase (ALP) triglyceride, bilirubin &nbsp;level in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings in this study revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of <em>Pithecellobiun dulce</em> against hepatotoxicity activity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Komal Sul Vitthal Chaware Vivek Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 39 46 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.985 Evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic Activity of Red Onion In Experimental Animals http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/988 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect of red onion on poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemia in wistar albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Hyperlipidemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of poloxamer-407 (P-407) at a dose of 1.0g/kg body weight in wistar albino rats. Drug treatments were done by oral gavage for 21 days. At the end of the study, animals were kept fasted over night and then blood samples were collected. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and High density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured while low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were calculated by Friedewald formula and atherogenic index was also calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; From the present investigation, it was observed that ethanolic extract of red onion have shown significant reduction in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoprotein levels and increase in HDL level in P-407 induced hyperlipidemia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings in this study revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of red onion against hyperlipidemic activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pooja Kadam Vitthal Chaware Vivek Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 52 62 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.988 Evaluation of anticataleptic activity of Hydroxytyrosol on Haloperidol induced Catalepsy in Experimental Animal http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/990 <p>Catalepsy is a symptom resulting from problems with the nervous system, and causes muscular rigidity. People with the symptoms may also be less sensitive to touch and have a decreased sensitivity to pain. Catalepsy generally causes people to be unresponsive to speech. It is similar to catatonia, a condition marked by strange movements, lack of movement, and/or general non responsiveness. However, it typically has an underlying physiological cause and does not cause stereotyped movements.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mira T Bansode V. J Chaware V. K Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 75 80 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.990 Evaluationof Antidiabetic Potential of Eucalyptus Globulus Plant Extract in Dexamethasone-Induced Diabetic Rats http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/989 <p>aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa</p> Ujwala B Kamble V. J. Chaware V. K. Redasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 63 74 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.989 A single case study: Excision of Medojagranthi (PedunculatedLipoma) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/991 <p>A Lipoma is benign tumor made of fat tissue as per modern that resemble in Ayurveda as Granthi in general and medojagranthi as specific.In ayurvedic classic charaka and Sushruta mentioned the management of medojagranthi is the sakoshensastrendagdhvai.e total excision. In this case a 55 years old female patient visited OPD of Shalya tantra with complaints of hanging painless mass like swelling at right gluteal region. On the basis of clinical findings and USG report a lipoma was diagnosed and excision was done under local anaesthesia (2% lignocaine hydrochloride with adrenaline). After excision there was 60*54*24 mm size pedunculated lipoma noted. Hence this case highlighted that lipoma can occur at unusal place like gluteal region and need the excision.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saurabh Patel Rajesh Kumar Sharma Vaibhavi Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 81 82 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.991 Potential of Piperaceae Plants as Antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/992 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Infectious disease was one of the most common health problems in developing countries which are caused by microorganism, such as bacteria. Piper (Piperaceae) was a medicinal plant that has potential as an antibacterial. Some plants of the piperaceae family have antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, such as <em>Piper cubeba</em>, <em>Piper nigrum</em>, <em>Piper betle</em>, <em>Piper crocatum</em>, <em>Piperomia pellucida</em>, <em>Piper longum</em>, <em>Piper sarmentosum</em>, and <em>Piper aduncum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This article described plant of the Piperaceae family that has antibacterial potential. This article reviewed the study of the antibacterial potential of the Piperaceae plant from various articles.</p> <p><strong>Data source: </strong>The database sources used include Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Media Published from 2010 to 2021.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It carried out by reviewing several libraries such as indexed national journals, international journals, and scientific articles regarding the potential of the Piperaceae plants as antibacterial against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The antibacterial activity of the Piperaceae plant originated from secondary metabolites of these plants including alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hottria Magdalena Anzharni Fajrina Aried Eriadi Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 83 100 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.992 Drug Discovery of Griseofulvin : A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/993 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Griseofulvin is a fungistatic antifungal drug used to treat dermatophytosis. Dermatophytes that &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;are often found include <em>Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This review article aims to discuss the drug discovery review of griseofulvin.</p> <p><strong>Data Source:</strong> The author created this review article using the literature study method relevant to the purpose of the review. Sources of information from national journals and international journals &nbsp;that are accessed through online sites such as Google Scholar, Research Gate, Science Direct, Springer Link, and NCBI. Key words were used to find the journals, namely griseofulvin, dermatophyte, toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The conclusion of this article is that griseofulvin is used as an antifungal drug containing chlorine from <em>Penicillium griseofulvum </em>isolated &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;against mycelium fungus. This drug is non-toxic, so it is effective and safe to fight various types of fungal infections of the skin such as tinea capitis and remains the drug of choice for dermatophytes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rinda Jumiati Boy Chandra Dan Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 101 107 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.993 Review: The Discovery and Development of Sildenafil Citrate http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1018 <p>Background: Griseofulvin is a fungistatic antifungal drug used to treat dermatophytosis. Dermatophytes that are often found include Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum. Purpose: This review article aims to discuss the drug discovery review of griseofulvin. Data Source: The author created this review article using the literature study method relevant to the purpose of the review. Sources of information from national journals and international journals that are accessed through online sites such as Google Scholar, Research Gate, Science Direct, Springer Link, and NCBI. Key words were used to find the journals, namely griseofulvin, dermatophyte, toxicity. Conclusion: The conclusion of this article is that griseofulvin is used as an antifungal drug containing chlorine from Penicillium griseofulvum isolated against mycelium fungus. This drug is non-toxic, so it is effective and safe to fight various types of fungal infections of the skin such as tinea capitis and remains the drug of choice for dermatophytes.&nbsp;</p> Eza Azhara Septifani Rina Desni Yetti Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 108 117 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1018 Oxidative Stress in Fish Cyprinus Carpio Caused By Oxytetracycline http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1006 <p>Environment pollution is posing threat to humans and animals. Environmental pollution is caused by anthropogenic activities and is a major problem in many countries. The present study was investigated to find the oxidative stress induced by oxytetracycline in fish <em>Cyprinus carpio</em>. The acute exposure was given for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs of exposure. The sublethal concentration decided was 80 mg/l. Under oxidative stress,&nbsp;parameters&nbsp;such as&nbsp;glutathione-S-transferase&nbsp;(GST),&nbsp;catalase (CAT)&nbsp;and&nbsp;superoxide dismutase (SOD)&nbsp;were&nbsp;studied and a&nbsp;significant reduction in the activity of GST, CAT and SOD was observed&nbsp;in&nbsp;the&nbsp;treated group&nbsp;as compared to control. A significant decrease in SOD and CAT is at 72 and 96 hours of exposure while, a significant decline trend after 24 hours of exposure in GST activity was observed. Acute exposure of OTC enhanced reactive oxygen species formation and inhibited antioxidant capacities in the fish. Based on the results it is evident that oxytetracycline is causing oxidative stress in fish. It is also demonstrated that oxidative stress biomarker may play important in biomonitoring assessment protocol.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sharma M Daundkar P Rani D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 118 121 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1006 Beta-Cyclodextrin As An Excipient In Drug Formulation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1002 <p>After its discovery nearly 30 years ago, (2-Hydroxy –propyl) Beta –Cyclodextrin, a highly soluble derivative of Beta –Cyclodextrin, has been an authorized excipients of drug formulation in both the US and European pharmacopoeia. It is recommended for use in oral and parenteral formulations as a solubilizer and stabilizer. The majority of medications taken by mouth have low aqueous solubility and dissolution rates. Beta-Cyclodextrin that has been chemically modified Dynamic complex formation used to enchance the Low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate, and reduced drug stability. Cyclodextrin form inclusion complexes with appropriately sized guest molecules to improve aqueous solubility, physical chemical stability, and bioavailability of drugs. Cyclodextrin is a group of compounds made up of glucose monomers arranged in a donut form. They are non-reducing, crystalline cyclic oligosaccrides with a truncated core that produces a hydrophilic outer surface. Cyclodextrin and its derivatives have become common modalities for increasing oral bio availability and absorption rate as a result of these effects. Cyclodextrin has been positioned as an effective facilitating and usable excipients. This article discusses the widespread use of Cyclodextrin as excipients in drug formulations as well as recent Cyclodextrin developments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhargav A ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 122 127 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1002 A Review Article on Proniosome: As A Drug Carrier http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1010 <p>A drug carrier is any substrate used in the process of drug delivery.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The basic component of the drug delivery system is an appropriate drug carrier that sets out to improve the selectivity, effectiveness, and safety of drug administration. So, based on their biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-immunogenic structure, Proniosomes are promising drug carriers that are non-ionic surfactant-based multilamellar or unilamellar vesicle are now widely used as an alternative to the liposome. On the basis of structure, they are similar to liposomes in having bilayer but having chemical differences in monomer units which make Proniosomes stable. They can entrap both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs of using either in an aqueous layer or in the vesicular membrane. Proniosomal carriers&nbsp;are suitable for the transdermal delivery of numerous pharmacological agents, including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial molecules.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anupam Kr. Sachan Sunil Kumar Tapasya Dwivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 128 131 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1010 Microsphere Overview http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1003 <p>The aim of developing continuous or managed delivery mechanisms has always been to minimise dosage duration, resulting in improved patient compliance and less side effects. Microspheres have been shown to minimise dosage, side effects, administration frequency, and the risk of dose dumping. As a result, patient compliance has improved.Targeted drug delivery mechanisms aim for a specific location in the body to maximise drug concentration in a specific tissue or organ, thus improving the drug's therapeutic effectiveness. Microspheres have promised targeted or managed drug distribution in the body for decades, and have shown to be superior to traditional drug delivery. The goal of this review different aspects of the microparticulate drug delivery system along with types of microspheres and methods of preparation and different applications as targeted or controlled drug delivery system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shiv Kumar Sah Mrs. Vasia Rajkumar Prasad Yadav Sunny Patel Mukesh Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 132 140 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1003 THE Role of Chewable Tablets: An Overview http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1005 <p>Chewable dosage forms for example tablets, delicate, pills, gums, chewable squares is long piece of drug specialist armamentarium. They are required to be break and bit in the middle of the teeth before administration. These tablets are given to the children who have difficulty in swallowing and to the adults who dislike swallowing. These tablets are intended to disintegrate smoothly in the mouth at a moderate rate either with or without actual chewing, characteristically chewable tablets have a smooth texture upon disintegration, are pleasant tasting and leave no bitter or unpleasant taste. Geriatric and pediatric patients and travelling patients who may not have ready access to water are most need of easy swallowing dosage forms like chewable tablets. The major formulation factors are flow, lubrication, disintegration, organoleptic properties, compressibility, compatibility and stability, which are common to regular (swallowed) and chewable tablets; however, organoleptic properties of the active drug substances are primary concern here. A formulator may use one or more approaches to arrive at a combination of formula and process that result in product with good organoleptic properties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Santosh Kumar Bhatt Kedarnagalakshman M Mukesh Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 141 146 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1005 A Review on Emulgel http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1007 <p>Chewable dosage forms for example tablets, delicate, pills, gums, chewable squares is long piece of drug specialist armamentarium. They are required to be break and bit in the middle of the teeth before administration. These tablets are given to the children who have difficulty in swallowing and to the adults who dislike swallowing. These tablets are intended to disintegrate smoothly in the mouth at a moderate rate either with or without actual chewing, characteristically chewable tablets have a smooth texture upon disintegration, are pleasant tasting and leave no bitter or unpleasant taste. Geriatric and pediatric patients and travelling patients who may not have ready access to water are most need of easy swallowing dosage forms like chewable tablets. The major formulation factors are flow, lubrication, disintegration, organoleptic properties, compressibility, compatibility and stability, which are common to regular (swallowed) and chewable tablets; however, organoleptic properties of the active drug substances are primary concern here. A formulator may use one or more approaches to arrive at a combination of formula and process that result in product with good organoleptic properties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shiva Prasada N Shivanand K Mutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 147 150 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1007 Nanofibers in Drug Delivery System http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1011 <p>The possible applications of electrospun fibers in drug delivery systems (DDS) are critically examined in this study. Nanofibers are among the most desirable resources in some kind of a variety of scenarios due to their operational capabilities including valuable features for another young generation of resources in energy, climate, even wellness. Because of its possibility to synthesize polymers with specific functions like greater porous design electrospinning was already presented as the most effective technique for fabricating polymer-based nanostructures. Electrospinning has emerged with the most significant challenge for fabricating nanostructures with several advantageous properties which are helpful in a wide range of uses first from the atmosphere to biomedicine. The medicine delivering mechanisms depending upon nanofibers have made significant progress in terms of regulated and sustained release. This analysis summarizes significant advancements within the production of electrospun nanofibers-based rapidly dispersing dosage form using many fibers, therapeutic agents, including entrapment approaches, as an emphasis on mouth administration. The oral cavity became the most discussed mucous membrane location because it would be open or even simple to examine, whereas the others are difficult for the patient and difficult to determine in vivo, according to this study. The drug-loaded nanofibrous structures are described based on their main functions and also the areas for operation.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shreya R. Dawange Sahebrao S. Boraste Prashant L. Pingale Sunil V. Amrutkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-14 2021-08-14 9 4 151 157 10.22270/ajprd.v9i4.1011