Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Cost of Illness Analysis and Quality of Life in Ischemic Stroke Patients In Usu Medan Hospital http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/652 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: aims to evaluate the COI INA-CBG BPJS patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke BPJS (n = 33) at USU Medan Hospital in February 2019-August 2019 period.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: this study was conducted used a prospective cohort study method in patients with ischemic stroke (n = 33) in USU Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: the intervened&nbsp; variable were the cost of patient therapy and calculating the difference in claims of INA-CBGs with the cost of patient therapy.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome</strong> <strong>measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study was quality of life with European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions Three Level (EQ5D3L).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; the results of this study indicate the total average cost of ischemic stroke inpatient therapy at the In patient Installation of USU Hospital in Medan obtained Rp 2,284,854 The average cost / rate incurred by the Hospital for ischemic stroke patients (n = 33) is still below the INA-CBGs claim rate. There was a relationship between the quality of life of ischemic stroke patients with diagnosis and comorbidities of patients (p = 0.004). The average quality of life (QoL) of ischemic stroke patients was obtained 0.7324 ± 0.2118.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: it could be concluded that the quality of life of ischemic stroke patients is classified as good 32 patients (96.96%).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Darma Ericson Saragih Azizah Nasution Khairunnisa K ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 1 6 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.652 Syzygium Polyanthum Wight Leaf Extract Evaluation On Aedes Spp Instar III-IV Larvae http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/678 <p><em>Aedes spp</em> mosquitos are the vectors that most cause diseases.&nbsp; The rise of insecticide resistance is related to the increasing of vectorial capacity. Plant can be used as an alternative source for controlling these vectors,&nbsp; one of which is <em>Syzygyium polyanthum</em> (Wight). The present study was conducted to investigate the larvasidal properties of <em>S. polyanthum</em> leaf on <em>Aedes spp</em> instar III-IV. Ethanolic extract of <em>S. polyanthum</em> (EESP) was prepared by maceration using ethanol 70%. Larvae were divided into 7 groups (n=25, respectively). Group I to V consisted of different concentrations of EESP (100 (CI);150 (CII);200 (CIII);250 (CIV);300ppm (CV)); VI: Water (W) and VII : Temephos 1% (T). Larvacidal activity was evaluated by calculating the dead larva at 180. 360, 1440 and 2880 minutes to obtain Lethal Concentration 50% (LC50) and Lethal Time 50% (LT50) using Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS). The result showed that no larva found dead in W-treated group. Otherwise, the mortality of larva was increased with increasing of EESP concentration (CI to CV). LC50 and LT50 showed 213 ppm and 2410 minutes, respectively. We conclude that EESP has larvicidal activity on <em>Aedes spp</em> instar III-IV.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Aedes spp</em>, extract, larvicidal, <em>Syzygium polyanthum</em></p> Widyawati Tri Rizky Ilham ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 7 9 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.678 Antidiarrheal Activity of n-Hexane Fraction Seeds of Leucaenae leucocephala (Lam) de Wit on Rat http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/685 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the n-hexane fraction of L. leucocephala (Lam) de Wit seeds induced by castor oil and intestinal motility methods for rats.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> L.leucochepala seeds simplicia powder extracted by maceration with 80% ethanol. Ethanol extract was fractionated with n-hexane solvent. Investigating of antidiarrheal activity of L.leucocephala fraction by induction of castor oil and intestinal motility methods.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The n-hexane L.leucocephala fraction reduced diarrhea based on observations of the onset of diarrhea, frequency, consistency, weight of stool and duration of diarrhea compared with negative controls. The n-hexane L.leucocephala fraction showed antidiarrheal activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg&nbsp; bw (P &lt;0.05) but differed significantly from loperamide (P &lt;0.05). In the intestinal motility method of the n-hexane fraction doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg bw the activity in inhibiting intestinal motility was significantly different from 0.5% CMC Na (P &lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Then-hexane fraction of L. leucocephala seeds based on antidiarrheal activity testing has the ability to reduce diarrhea.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saddam Husein Marline Nainggolan Yuandan Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 10 13 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.685 Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Peel Extracts Obtained by Sequential Extraction Method http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/710 <p>Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) is a plant belongs to Lythraceae family. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of&nbsp; petroleum ether, chloroform , acetone, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the peel fruit of Punica granatum against standard microorganism.&nbsp; This plant has been used as a traditional treatment for several diseases such as microbial infections. Extracts were evaluated for their effectiveness against four bacterial strains including both Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria as well as fungal species (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) using disc diffusion method. The ethyl acetate, acetone and petroleum ether extracts showed higher antibacterial activity than the chloroform and ethanol extracts with inhibition zone ranged between (7-16 mm). The petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed the higher antifungal activity compared with the other extracts, the diameter inhibition zone ranged between (11-16 mm). The antioxidant potential of peel extracts was determined on the basis of their scavenging activity of the stable 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and 2,2'azino-bis(ethyl benzthiazoline -6-sulfonic acid (ABTS<sup>+</sup>). All extracts showed high antioxidant activity . The highest result of antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging assay was in acetone extract (89.40%), but high result by ABTS in ethanol extract (72.07%).</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:&nbsp;</strong></p> Missa Mohammed Saleh Abdealsiede Ayat Ahmed Alrasheid Mei Musa Ali Omar Abdalla Ahmed Elbashir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 14 20 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.710 Force Degradation Study of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate by UV-Spectrophotometric Method http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/679 <p>Tenofovir disoproxil Fumarate (TDF), acyclic phosphonate nucleotide analogue, used as antiretroviral agents in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.&nbsp; A stability indicating UV -spectrophotometric method is simple, an accurate and economic, precise and reproducible method has been used for the estimation of Tenofovir disoproxil Fumarate in bulk and&nbsp;tablets dosage form in present work. The wavelength selected for the absorption correction method was 260 nm. The linearity range of 2-10μg/ml proved that it obeyed Beer’s Law and the correlation coefficient (r2) was found to be 0.999 at 260 nm. The drug was subjected to acid, alkali, peroxide, UV and Heat degradation. The force degradation studies of Tenofovir disoproxil Fumarate was done on Stress degradation by hydrolysis under alkaline condition by using 0.1N NAOH was found to be 10.6%. Stress degradation by hydrolysis under acidic condition by using 0.1N HCl and product degradation was found to be 10.95%. Oxidative degradation was done by using hydrogen peroxide and product degradation was found to be 12.22%. Neutral hydrolytic degradation was found to be 12.26%. Forced degradation studies of drug reveal good stability under the chosen experimental conditions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Debaje Priyanka D Chavan Harishchandra H ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 21 25 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.679 Study on the Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety among Diabetes Mellitus patients in Tertiary Care Hospital- A Prospective Cross-sectional Study. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/658 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus is one of the most predominant, chronic disease afflicting globally with its amplifying burden. The association of diabetes with psychological disorders exists with depression and anxiety being the most common, often remains undiagnosed or unidentified eventually leading to a decline in functional abilities and self-care, worsening the health profile of the patients and contributing to both morbidity and mortality. This study explores the association of psychiatric problems with diabetes mellitus and their related risk factors.<strong> Objectives: </strong>To investigate the association and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (depression and anxiety) among diabetic patients and access their associated risk factors.<strong> Methods: </strong>A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted for six months in 105 diabetic patients from the outpatient department. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0.<strong> Results: </strong>Overall 53(50.5%) were observed with the symptoms of anxiety while 45(42.9%) with symptoms of depression respectively. The prevalence of marked anxiety and depression was observed higher in a female. Anxiety and depression were also common among participants with moderate social support. Anxiety and depression were greater among patient who were illiterate (OR=1.50, 95% CI 0.92-5.38), unemployed (OR=7.50, 95% CI 1.29-43.61) with low income (PR=3.09 95% CI 0.92-10.36) and who were retired (OR=6.00, 95% CI 0.81-44.35).<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result showed a high prevalence of depression and anxiety among female than in the male. Most of the patients developed moderate or severe anxiety and depression. Various factors such as low income, age, low education, unemployed, uncontrolled diabetes were associated with anxiety and depression. Awareness programs and health education should be conducted. Counseling and appropriate medication should be initiated to reduce future complications.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Key words:&nbsp;</strong></p> Pem Tamang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 26 32 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.658 Astro Phamacological Perspective of Vitamins http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/665 <p>The pharmacological connectivity of vitamins with astrology is new concept of complementary medicine. Vitamins have chemo - preventive value in therapeutics. The element crisis completes their solubility on the basis of sun and moon traits.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank Dimri Virbal Singh Rajwar Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 8 2 33 34 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.665 Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of 2-Aryl Benzimidazole Derivatives http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/582 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To synthesize benzimidazole derivatives, characterize them by <sup>1</sup>HNMR and ATIR techniques and evaluate their antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In the present study 19 benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized by reacting <em>O</em>-phenylenediamine as the primary reactant with different aromatic aldehydes and benzoic acids. Reactions were monitored using thin layer chromatography technique, and the newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by ATIR and <sup>1</sup>HNMR techniques. The antioxidant assay was performed using ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] method and DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Compounds BNZ-1, BNZ-2, BNZ-3, BNZ-9, and BNZ-10 showed comparable antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid at higher dose.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: T</strong>he synthesized benzimidazole derivatives have significant radical scavenging potential.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vineet Kumar Singh Amrita Parle ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 35 44 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.582 Prospective Study on Evidence Based Management of chronic Kidney Disease with Comorbidities http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/667 <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem affecting the adult population in several continents and increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. This prospective study has been conducted to understand the evidence based pharmacotherapy, Rationality of prescribed medications, Prevalence of co-occurring conditions and also to know the rate of progression of Glomerular Filtration. This research has been conducted on randomly selected inpatients (n=70) in Thumbay New Life Hospital during the months of January and February. The tools used include Informed Consent Form, Patient Counselling, Patient Medical and Laboratory Reports. Finally, the study conclude that the most common symptom of CKD is pedal edema, Most commonly occurred stage of CKD is G5, prevalence of comorbidities from High include Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease respectively. Estimated GFR has been improved in most of the patients from the duration of admission to discharge but statistical analysis shows a non-significant p value.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shareefa Habeeba Rafya Fatima Noor Us Sabah Nausheen Sehar Shumaila yousuf Umama Yezdani Mohammad Gayoor Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-21 2020-04-21 8 2 117 122 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.667 Coronavirus Pandemic: Emergence, Transmission, Preventive Measures and Management http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/726 <p>Coronavirus is found in animals and, rarely, can be transmitted from animals to humans and then spread person to person. An occurrence of the coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in China is causing global concern. It came from a seafood and meat market in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It has since spread to many countries around the world including India. World Health Organization (WHO) declared novel coronavirus eruption a “pandemic” on March 11th, 2020. Patients infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. Prevent spread of infection by washing hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching face. This virus transmits primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when adiseased person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important to cover face by mask and coughing into a flexed elbow at public places. Currently there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. In this review, we summarize recent information about the emergence, tansmission, preventive measures and therapeutic options available now.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahaveer Prasad Khinchi Mohd. Shahid Khan Simranjeet Singh Saluja ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 8 2 45 49 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.726 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Based Antigens and Nucleic Acids Delivery: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/686 <p>Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have been explored for the delivery of small molecule drugs, antigens, and nucleic acids because of their large surface area, pore volume, amenability of their surface for functionalization, stable mesoporous structure, and biocompatibility.&nbsp; Biomoecules loading capacitites, &nbsp;release and target cell accumulation efficiencies have been improved for both antigen and nucleic acid delivery by the synthesis of large-pore MSN, dendritic MSN, hollow-core MSN, and multifunctional MSN. This article overview the major advances in the use of MSN for delivery of antigens and therapeutic nucleic acids such as DNA, siRNA, and miRNA aimed for treatment of various diseases. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jemal Dilebo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 8 2 50 57 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.686 An Updated Review of a Novel Drug Delivery System in Medicated Chewing Gum http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/680 <p>Chewing gums are mobile drug delivery systems. Unlike chewable tablets medicated gums are not supposed to be swallowed and may&nbsp; be removed from the site of application without resort to invasive means and medicated chewing gum MCG is solid, single dose preparation. As for as patient convenience is concerned it is discrete and easy administration without water promotes higher compliance. Since it can be taken anywhere, a chewing gum formulation is an excellent choice for acute medication. The advantages for children and for patients who find swallowing tablets difficult are obvious. The medicated chewing gums are solid, single dose preparations with a base consisting mainly of gums that are intended to be chewed, but not swallowed. They contain one or more active substances, which are released by chewing and are intended to be used for local treatment of mouth diseases or systemic delivery after absorption through the buccal mucosa. This concept is supported by statements that chewing sugar free gum can help reduce the risk of dental caries (cavities). The objective of this systematic study is to appraise existing evidence concerning a possible therapeutic effect of sugar- free chewing gum for patients. MCG represents the newest system with potential uses in pharmaceuticals, over the counter medicines and neutraceuticals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ch.Surya Kumari S. Suresh Babu Sk. Asha Begham K. Venketeswerarao G. Durgarao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 8 2 58 66 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.680 Regulatory outlook from concept to commercialization of Biosimilars in Brazil market http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/672 <p>Biological products or biopharmaceuticals are medicinal products derived from living organism systems and manufactured by using modern biotechnology that differ widely from the conventional synthetic drugs. They are much larger and more complex molecules with inherent diversity; hence, different manufacturers cannot produce identical biological products, even with the same type of host expression system and equivalent technologies. Thus, biologics manufactured and marketed after patent expiration are usually referred to as biosimilars. Biosimilars endeavor to copy the original technology leading to the production of innovative biotechnological medicines to obtain a product which is similar to the reference product. These products reported to improve the treatment landscape for multiple diseases, particularly in the areas of oncology, blood disorders, rheumatology, endocrinology and are becoming choice of treatment regimen due to policy push by governments for it’s affordability without comprising on quality, safety and efficacy. Pharmaceutical exports from Brazil increased by around 41% between 2009 and 2013, touching&nbsp;a high of U.S. $1.516 billion. The valuation of Brazilian pharma markets has shown double digit growth in the past decade. Between 2012 and 2015, market valuations have increased from U.S. $25.2 billion to U.S. $35.3 billion.</p> <p>Biosimilarity is based on a comprehensive comparability exercise wherein unavoidable clinical differences are evaluated and must meet equivalence or non-inferiority criteria. Biosimilars need to comply with different regulatory requirements for market authorization in different sites. There are several other related issues that need to be defined by the national authorities, such as interchangeability, labeling and prescribing information. The Brazilian health surveillance agency shadows the key principles established by the World Health Organization for the assessment of biosimilarity. However, the regulations also widen the gap by having standalone application pathway that does not require the usual comparability exercise with the reference product, originating non-biosimilar copies. Interchangeability and the use of nonproprietary names are not regulated. The objective of this manuscript is to explore the Brazilian Regulatory outlook from concept to commercialization of Biosimilars.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Raj Shekhar P Muralidharan Namrata Hallur Sangamesh B Puranik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 67 74 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.672 Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Soluble Drugs: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/664 <p>Bioavailability is defined as the rate and extent of absorption of unchanged drug from its dosage form. The oral bioavailability of drugs with poor solubility and reasonable permeability is limited by the drug dissolution step from drug products. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new drugs. The article briefly highlights traditional and novel techniques that are used for solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drugs are discussed in this article. The Traditional techniques include use of co-solvents, hydrotrophy, micronization, change in dielectric constant of solvent, amorphous forms, chemical modification of drug, use of surfactants etc. Novel technologies are size reduction technologies, lipid based delivery system, micellar technologies, solid dispersion and many more.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ravi Gupta Vidhi Jain Jagdish Chand Nagar Aadil Ansari Kapil Sharma Amrito Sarkar Mohd. Shahid Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 75 78 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.664 Regulatory Pathway for Registration of Biosimilars in Russia http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/673 <p>Biological products or biopharmaceuticals are medicinal products derived from living organism systems and manufactured by using modern biotechnology that differ widely from the conventional synthetic drugs. According to some estimates, Russia is poised to be among the top five global pharmaceutical Markets in terms of value in the next couple of years. Due to the impetus shown by the government regarding the evolution of the Russian regulatory framework for pharmaceutical products, this and other market trends suggest that Russia will soon become a powerhouse destination for pharmaceutical manufacturers and contract research organizations.</p> <p>Russian law allows the registration of biological drugs defined as medicinal products containing a biological active substance. A bio­logical active substance is a substance that is produced by or extracted from a biological source and requires physical, chemical and biologi­cal testing, characterization of its quality, along with its production process and control. It does not define a biosimilar, nor it provides a regulatory framework for the biosimilar approval; this implies that a full clinical developmental program, similar to the innovator biologi­cal product, must be completed even for a biosimilar. An applicant must submit a registration dossier to the Ministry of Health (MoH), the regulatory body for drugs evaluation, with its affiliation Federal State Budgetary Institution - Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products (FSBI-SCEMP). The complete dossier in Russian must be submitted to the MoH, and should include administrative doc­uments, description of pharmaceutical properties and data about the manufacturing process, quality control, preclinical studies (pharmaco­logical and toxicological) and clinical studies regarding the biological drug. Russia follows the European Guidelines for biosimilars for data requirements for the registration of a biological drug. Today, Russia stands on the verge of becoming a major force in the global pharmaceutical market. The exact contours of its future are as yet undefined; challenges and opportunities co-exist in equal measure. The Russia of today is not the Russia of yesteryears, and tomorrow’s Russia will take yet a different face again.</p> <p>The objective of this manuscript is to explore the Regulatory pathway for registration of Biosimilars in Russia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Raj Shekhar Namrata Hallur P Muralidharan S B Puranik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 8 2 79 87 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.673 Ayurvedic Life Style Drugs Promise Blissful Life http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/668 <p>Holistic health concept of ayurveda formulated polyactive pharmacons of life style drugs for regenerating the natural physicological order. They eradicate disorders caused by addictive and subjective life styles of poor quality.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank Dimri Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 8 2 88 89 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.668 A Review on Macroscopy, Microscopy and Pharmacological Activity of Cayratiatrifolia Linn. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/669 <p>Cayratiatrifolia (Linn.)Domin is a perennial climber, family Vitaceae, found in India, Asia and Australia. The plant is found in hilly regions as well as the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam. It is commonly known as fox grape in English, Amalbel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit.&nbsp;&nbsp; The plant has trifoliated leaves with (2-3cm) long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in colour. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, spherical, about 1 cm in diameter of dark purple or black colour.The stem composed of cork cells on the outer side and composed of small size sclerenchymatous cells. The cortex is wide and has parenchymatous cells. Numbers of sclereids are widely distributed in the cortex region. Cortex also shows the presence of calcium oxalate crystals.The leaf surface shows the stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer (Figure2A). Epidermal cells are rectangular, thin and straight walled cells. Stomata are anisocytic or unequal celled stomata, three subsidiary cells, one is smaller than other two. Leaf surface analysis also shows the presence of veins, vein islet and vein termination (Figure2B). Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bundles (xylem and phloem).The leaf powder is pale green in color, with a characteristic odour and bitter taste.This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Whole plant of Cayratiatrifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins. Plant shows the antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kapil Sharma Lavish Salvi Ravi Gupta Monika Meghani Pradhuman Kumar Nagar Chetan Kumar Dubey Jagdish Chandra Nagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 90 95 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.669 A Review on Dyslipidemia: Types, Risk Factors and Management http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/682 <p>Dyslipidemia is characterized by abnormally elevated cholesterol or fats (lipids) in the blood.&nbsp; Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is one of the leading causes of death. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease other factors are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Presently statins and fibrates are the major anti-hyperlipidemic agents for the treatment of elevated plasma cholesterol and triglycerides respectively, with remarkable side effects on the muscles and the liver.Lifestyle interventions remain a key component for the management of dyslipidemias. The present review will highlights types, risk factors and management available for dyslipidemia.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Arushi Purva Kalpesh Sharma Mohd. Shahid Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 96 98 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.682 A Women Infertility: An Overview http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/654 <p>Female infertility is the major disorder which has altered the man kind foe lack of conception and reproducibility, stressful world, excess radiation, lack of biological food, genetically disorder ,changing life style, increased electronic discharge have resulted the female infertility. Infertility/ childlessness cause great personal suffering &amp; distress. Most of this agony &amp; misery is hidden from the public gaze. That is the reason this topic is not discussed about openly. The dismal ignorance &amp; neglect about the causes of childlessness and its treatment are main reason for the lack of public support for childless couple. Female fertility can be limited or diminished or destroyed in a number of ways. Women have a finite number of germs cells and follicles that are available for a limited period, from menarche to menopause, during their lifetimes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yash Upadhyay Anshu Chhabra Jagdish Chandra Nagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 99 106 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.654 A Synthesis, Properties and Application as a Possible Drug Delivery Systems Dendrimers – A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/676 <p>Dendrimer is derived from the Greek word “dendron” which is used for tree and from the Greek suffix “mer” (segment) which describes the synthetic, three-dimensional molecules having branching parts.“A dendrimer is generally described as a macromolecule, which is characterized by its dendritic and hyper branched 3D structure that offers a high degree of surface functionality and versatility.” Dendrimers possess three distinguishable architectural components i.e. an interior core, interior layer(generations) composed of repeating units radially attached to the interior core, and exterior (terminal functionality) attached to outermost interior generation (Fig. 1). The higher generation dendrimers, due to their globular structure, occupy a smaller hydrodynamic volume compared to the corresponding linear polymers. The dendritic structure is characterized by layer between each generation.Dendrimers are generally prepared using either a divergent method or a convergent one. There is a fundamental difference between these two construction concepts. Dendrimers shows the various properties such as structure, shape, aqueous solubility, non-polar solubility, &amp;architecture. Dendrimer can be classification on the basis of their shape, structure, branching, solubility, chirality and attachment. Dendrimer can be differentiated on the basis of their shape, end functional groups and internal cavities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lavish Salvi Chetan Kumar Dubey Kapil Sharma Devendra Nagar Monika Meghani Saloni Goyal Jagdish Chandra Nagar Archana Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 107 113 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.676 HPLC & It’s Utilization in Disease Diagnosis http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/666 <p>High Performance Liquid Chromatography is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify and quantify each component in a mixture. The HPLC is suitable for a variety of clinical applications, including pharmaceutical development, legal application such as detecting the Presence of illicit drugs in urine &amp; blood. High-performance liquid chromatography is a technique introduced for the accurate diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies, thalassemias &amp; estimation of glycosylated hemoglobin. The advantage of the HPLC system is the excellent resolution, reproducibility &amp; quantification of several normal &amp; abnormal hemoglobin resulting in accurate diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes. HPLC technique which is used to separate the component in across the two equivalents phases i.e. stationary phases&nbsp; is solid or liuqid supported on a solid&nbsp; which is packed into a column while sample moves in along with mobile phase&nbsp; is liuqid or gas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the HPLC technique in diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes and also correlate it with clinicohematological profile in these cases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aadil Ansari Ravi Gupta Mitaksha Jhanwar Peehu Kaushik Divyanshu Sharma Mohd. Shahid Khan Jagdish Chandra Nagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 2 114 116 10.22270/ajprd.v8i2.666