Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Inhibitory AKT2 And Vegr2 Genes Expression of Avicennia Marina Using RT-PCR On Widr Cells http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/641 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To evaluate the activities the anticancer of n-hexane extract of <em>Avicennia marina </em>leaves on WiDr cells in down-regulated of expression of Akt2 and VEGFR2 genes.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: <em>Avicennia marina</em> leaves&nbsp; were dried and extracted with n-hexane, analyzed the down-regulated Akt 2 and VEGFR2 expression which was determined the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>N-hexane extract of<em> Avicennia marina</em>, in which there were down regulated expression Akt 2 and VEGFR2 of 0.43 and 0.50 WiDr cells. N-hexane extract of mangrove leaves has cancer chemoprevention activity with down-regulated on WiDr cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: :N-hexane extract of <em>Avicennia marina</em> leaves had anticancer activity with down-regulated on WiDr cells, suggest that significantly inhibit the expression of Akt2 and VEGFR2 genes.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Qurrohman, T Hasibuan, P.A.Z. Basyuni, M ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 1 4 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.641 Evaluation of Drug Management Achievement in Pharmacy Installation of Langsa General Hospital http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/648 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to evaluate the achievements of drug management in Pharmacy Installation of Langsa General Hospital</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: The study used descriptive designs for 2018 data which were retrospective and prospective. Data was collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative data from document observations and interviews with relevant Pharmacy Installation officers.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: the intervened&nbsp; variable were drug selection, planning and procurement, and distribution.</p> <p>Main <strong>outcome</strong> <strong>measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study were suitability of drug items available with the National Formulary, frequency of procurement of each drug item per year,&nbsp; accuracy of&nbsp; data on the number of drugs on the stock card, percentage and value of expired and / or damaged drugs, percentage of dead stock and level of drug availability.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; drug management system that conformed&nbsp; to the following standards were the suitability of the available drug items with the National Formulary (88.37%); the accuracy of data on the number of drugs on the stock card (100%) and&nbsp; drug availability (13 months 14 days).&nbsp; Drug mangement which were not accordance with standard: the frequency of procurement of each drug item per year; percentage of expired and / damaged drug values (2.64%) and percentage of dead stock (3.24%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: it could&nbsp; be concluded that the management of drugs in Langsa General Hospital Pharmacy Installation had not been fully effective and efficient in accordance with established standards.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mauliana M Wiryanto W Urip Harahap ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 5 10 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.648 Comparison of In-Vitro Dissolution of Griseofulvin Tablet made from Nano Particles and Solid Dispersion http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/644 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To find out the comparison of dissolution results of griseofulvin tablets made from nanoparticles, solid dispersions, and conventional materials.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> Different types of active ingredients in the form of nanoparticles and solid dispersions can affect the dissolution results of tablets.</p> <p><strong>Main outcomes measure:</strong> The results obtained in this study are the cumulative dissolution percentage and the order kinetics of the release of active ingredients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was no significant cumulative percent drug release difference (p&gt; 0.05) between nano particles, solid dispersions, and conventional materials. Tablets containing active nanoparticles, solid dispersions, and conventional materials show a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2) close to 1, shown in zero-order kinetics models.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nurul Karima Sumaiyah Sumaiyah Azizah Nasution ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 11 13 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.644 Phytochemicals Analysis and Cytotoxicity Activity of Ethanol Extract of Litseacubeba Lour.Heartwood http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/643 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical compounds whichcontained in the ethanol extract and cytotoxic activity ethanol extract of <em>Litseacubeba </em>heartwood induced in T47D cells.</p> <p>Methods: The ethanol extract was extracted by maceration using ethanol 96% solvent. Cytotoxic activity was determined with MTT method and the IC<sub>50</sub>analyzed using SPSS 23.</p> <p>Results: Phytochemicals screening were showed that the ethanol extract of <em>Litseacubeba </em>heartwood contained steroids/triterpenoids, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The IC<sub>50</sub>of ethanol extract of <em>L</em><em>itseacubeba </em>heartwood were 349,57 ±0,35μg/ml in T47D cells.</p> <p>Conclusions: Ethanol extract of <em>L</em><em>itseacubeba </em>heartwood has activity as an anticancer to T47D cells breast cancer agents.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fujiko M Dalimunthe A Masfria M ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 14 17 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.643 Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Care Standard Implementation in Medan City Health Center, North Sumatra http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/649 <p>Objectives: The implementation of Pharmaceutical Care Standards policies in health centers can be seen from the extent of suitability of human resources, facilities and infrastructure, management of medicines and consumable medical materials, clinical pharmacy care and quality control of pharmaceutical care. Inadequate implementation with the Pharmaceutical Care Standards policy will have a negative impact on service quality. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of Minister of Health Regulation No. 74 of 2016 concerning Pharmaceutical Care Standards in Medan City Health Center.Methods: This research is a cross sectional descriptive survey research. Data obtained from filling out questionnaire sheets and checklist sheets based on direct observation in outpatient health centers that have pharmacists and pharmacy technical staff at the pharmacy. The data obtained were analyzed using indicators and compared with literature standards. This research was conducted in July - October 2019.Results: The results showed that the total score of implementation of Pharmaceutical Care Standards in Medan City Health Center was 73-82 included in category II / moderate. Implementation has not yet fully met the standards, this is indicated by aspects of facilities and infrastructure; clinical pharmacy care have not been carried out effectively because it is related to the ratio between the number of patients with pharmacists and pharmaceutical technical personnel in the health center that is still not rational; and management of drugs and medical consumables. Assessment of the highest level of patient satisfaction is the Satisfaction category, as many as 77.89-97.87%.Conclusions: Implementation of Minister of Health Regulation No. 74 of 2016 concerning Pharmaceutical Care Standards in Medan City Health Center is included in the Medium Category. Factors affecting implementation include human resources and infrastructure. The level of patient satisfaction is Satisfied Category.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Erviana N H Wiryanto W Harahap U ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 18 21 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.649 Impact of Intervention on Reduction of White Blood Cells in the Management of Infection in Pneumonia Patients http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/642 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To study the impact of intervention on the reduction of white blood cells (WBC) in the management of infection in patients with pneumonia in Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) hospital period July through September 2019.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This three-month analytical prospective cohort study analyzed the reduction of WBC in the management of infection in pneumonia patients (n=42) before and after intervention in USU hospital. A self-designed questionair was used to assess the patients characterics, the required laboratory data including WBC, and length of stay (LOS). The base-line data were assessed after three days of treatment. The data with&nbsp; intervetion were assessed between July - September 2019. The Patients characteristics and drug utilization were analyzed descriptively. The levels of WBC before and after interventions were compared using paired samples t test (p &lt; 0.05) was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Characteristics of the pneumonia patients: male, 61.9%; female, 38.1%. The mean age of patients with pneumonia was 60.48 ± 14.76 years. The most widely used antibiotic was ceftriaxone as much as 48%. There was a significant difference in reduction of WBC between patients with pneumonia before and after intervention, p= 0.002.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Intervention can significantly increase the treatment of infection in patients with pneumonia.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Sri Aryanda Azizah Nasution Khairunissa K ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 22 24 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.642 Identification of CTX-M Gene Resistance on Bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Pneumonia Patients in Haji Adam Malik Center Hospital, Medan, Indonesia http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/640 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To find out whether <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> and <em>Klebsi</em><em>e</em><em>lla pneumonia</em><em>e</em> that cause pneumonia have Ceftriaxon-resistant CTX-M coding genes.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: The method used in this study is a cross sectional prospective design and carried out prospectively in pneumonia patients who have medical record data on the diagnosis of pneumonia patients in the period January to September 2019 at the Haji Adam Malik General Hospital in Medan by taking sputum from the patient, then detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the Integrated Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatra Utara.</p> <p><strong>Main outcomes measure:</strong> The resistance coding gene in <em>K</em><em>le</em><em>bsi</em><em>e</em><em>lla pneumonia</em>e with the percentage of CTX-M gene is 93.7% and <em>Acin</em><em>e</em><em>tobacter baumannii</em> has a low percentage where the expression of CTX-M gene is 17.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The distribution of the CTX-M gene in <em>Klebs</em><em>i</em><em>ella Pneumonia</em><em>e</em> is higher than that of <em>Acin</em><em>e</em><em>tobacter </em><em>b</em><em>aumannii</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Safrina S Urip Harahap Fransiscus Ginting ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 25 28 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.640 Hydrogel Activity Test from Kirinyu Leaf Ethanol Extract (Chromolaenaodorata (L.) R. King & H. Rob) and Combination of Kirinyu Leaf Ethanol Extract with Collagen As A Healing Wound Excision. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/651 <p>Objective: the purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the kirinyu leaf ethanol extract hydrogel preparation and the combination of the kirinyu leaf ethanol extract with collagen as a healing wound excision.</p> <p>Method: This research is experimental, where the ethanol extracts of Kirinyu leaves and collagen are formulated in the form of hydrogel preparations and tested on the healing of excision wounds in rats. Testing wound healing activities were divided into 6 groups. The Group 1 (negative control) were given hydrogel base without Kirinyu leaf ethanol extract in combination with collagen, group 2 (positive control) were given Octenilin®gel, groups 3 and 4, were given hydrogel of Kirinyu leaf ethanol extract while groups 5 and 6 were given hydrogel extract of kirinyu leaves combined with collagen.</p> <p>Result: The results of percent reduction in wound diameter showed that groups 3 and 4 gave significant differences compared to group 1 which began to be seen on the 10th day (p &lt;0.05). While groups 5 and 6 gave significant differences that began to be seen on the 8th day (p &lt;0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion:Hydrogel preparation in group 6 has the most potential in healing excision wounds.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Thursina C S Julia R Sumaiyah S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 35 37 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.651 Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation Curcumin Ovule with Polyethylene Glycol (Peg) Base http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/650 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to formulate and in vitro evaluation curcumin ovule with polyethylene glycol bases 400 and 6000 concentration variation using fushion method.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Curcumin ovule formulated by fushion method using the comparison of polyethylene glycol 400 and 6000 base concentration. In vitro evaluation of preparations included observation of organoleptic (odor, color, and shape), measurement of uniformity of weight, disintegration time, observation of stability of the preparation during 6 months storage at refrigerator temperature, and release test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that all preparations ovule curcumin were orange, specific odor, cone-shape, stable for 6 months storage at refrigerator. Uniformity of ovule weight and disintegration time according the standard prepaation. Ovule release test showed formula I polyethylen glycol base concentration of 400 (90%) and 6000 (10%) very fast to release of curcumin from the preparation compared to other formula is gave average release of 93,7% ± SD 0.36.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Curcumin can be formulated in the form of ovule using polyethylene glycol bases 400 and 6000 concentration variation.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dathin Aulia Delarosa Sumaiyah S Poppy Anjelisa Z. Hasibuan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 38 41 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.650 Mapping of Community Pharmacy Practices in Padangsidimpuan City http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/657 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to find out the conditions of practice and mapping related to the category of community pharmacy practices in Padangsidimpuan City.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study was conducted by distributing assessment rubrics directly to 30 pharmacists in charge of pharmacies in the city of Padangsidimpuan. Data is the identity and choice of respondents for 2 or 3 descriptions of the level of compliance with each three-point scale; 0, 2 and 4 for each element. The level of fulfillment of standards consists of 7 categories based on cumulative points, and based on the average of points from each of the 5 standard aspects, including; professionalism, managerial, dispensing, pharmaceutical care, and public health services, depicted in spider web diagrams. This research was conducted in August - October 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mapping the results of the pharmacy practice category to 30 community pharmacy practices in Padangsidimpuan, among others: 8 pharmacies received excellent categories, 5 pharmacies of good categories, 3 pharmacies of adequate categories, 3 pharmacies of poor categories, 5 pharmacies of substandard categories, 5 pharmacies of the category not feasible, 1 category pharmacy is not very feasible.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> The average level of compliance with pharmacy practice standards in the city of Padangsidimpuan is included in the sub-standard category. Based on the average standard aspect points, professionalism has less categories, managerial has enough categories, dispensing enough categories, and pharmaceutical care is lacking categories and public health services have sub-standard categories.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> Cory, L F H Wiryanto W Khairunnisa K ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 42 46 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.657 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION COLLAGEN OF PATIN FISH SKIN (Pangasius Sp.) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/661 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to isolate and characterize the collagen isolated from the skin of patin fish.<strong>Method:</strong> Collagen isolation consisted of three steps, namely deproteinization process using NaOH solution concentration of 0,05 M and long soaking time for 3x24 hours; immersion in CH<sub>3</sub>COOH solution with a concentration of 0,05 M and long soaking time 3x24 hours; Furthermore, collagen was extracted with water at 40°C for 2 hours. The isolated collagen was tested for characteristics including chemical and physical properties compared to commercial collagen.<strong>Results:</strong> Chemical characteristics of collagen isolated from patin fish skin isolation compared to commercial collagen, respectively: 6,55% and 6,68% water content; ash content of 0,19% and 0,18%; protein content 93,63% and 97,42% and fat content 0,41% and 0,30%; The metal content in the collagen isolated from the skin of patin fish and commercial collagen is below the threshold (Pb); 0,5 mg/kg. Amino acid test results from patin fish skin collagen obtained glycine (234381,88 mg/kg), proline (109404,17 mg/kg), alanine (83988,79 mg/kg), arginine (80918,44 mg/kg) and glutamate (87315,88 mg/kg). The physical characteristics of the patin fish skin collagen showed the presence of amide group A (3286,7cm<sup>-1</sup>), amide B (2947,23cm<sup>-1</sup>), amide I (1651,07cm<sup>-1</sup>), amide II (1450,47cm<sup>-1</sup>), and amide III (1246,02 cm<sup>-1</sup>).<strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patin fish skin can be isolated into collagen that meets the quality requirements of collagen as a cosmetic preparation.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Valentina Girsang Julia Reveny Marline Nainggolan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 47 51 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.661 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Kitolod (Hippobromalongiflora) Leaf Against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/660 <p>Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine at what concentration of ethanol extract of kitolod leaves is active against Staphylococcus<em> aureus</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi.</em></p> <p>Methods: Ethanolic extract of Kitolod leaves was tested for phytochemical screening by using standard protocol. Antibacterial testing was using the diffusion disc method to measure the inhibition zone against the <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi</em> with various concentration of Kitolod leaves extract (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 75%).</p> <p>Results: Phytochemical screening showed that ethanolic extract of Kitolod leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. The antibacterial inhibition of ethanol extract of kitolod leaves against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi bacteria at a concentration of 75% had a diameter of 11.3 mm and 12.16 mm with a strong category.</p> <p>Conclusions: Kitolod leaf could be use as a novel antibacterial agent.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Simanjuntak Helen Anjelina ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 52 54 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.660 Anti-Inflammation Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil In- Vitro Against Raw Cells 264.7 http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/633 <p>Objective:This study aimsto determine the anti-inflammation activity of pure coconut oil on Raw Cell 264.7 induced by LPSMethods: The anti-inflammation activity test for Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) was carried out by testing the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 genes on RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS by the method Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).Results: The test results of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and COX-2 gene expression from VCO on RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreased the value of VCO density. In iNOS expression, VCO density values ​​(0,90±0,015) showed significantly different effects with positive and negative controls p&lt;0,05, VCO IL-1β density values ​​(2,47±0,010) showed different effects. significant with normal control, positive control and negative control p&lt;0,05, TNF-α density value on VCO (0,91±0,010) showed significantly different effects from positive control and negative control p&lt;0,05, then the value IL-6 density at VCO (1,23 ± 0,015) showed significantly different effects from normal and positive controls p&lt;0,05, and COX-2 density values ​​at VCO (1,02±0,015) showed significantly different effects with normal and positive controls p&lt;0,05.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study VCO on RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS can inhibit the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 genes so that VCO effectively has anti-inflammatory activity.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Amin M Silalahi J Harahap U Satria D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 55 58 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.633 Quantification of plasma levels of antiviral drug sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS331007 in patients of chronic hepatitis C with chronic kidney disease using UPLC-MS/MS method http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/659 <p>Sofosbuvir based regimens are the only treatment available in India and some other Asian countries for curing hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. The main excretion route of sofosbuvir is renal so treatment of HCV infection is challenging in patients on hemodialysis. A simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated according to USFDA guidelines on Linear Ion trap Quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (QTRAP4500) which was applied to estimate the drug concentration of sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS331007 in patients of chronic kidney disease with HCV infection. Clopidogrel was used as internal standard (IS) for this study. All analytes and IS were separated on UPLC C18-HSS column (2.1mmX50mm, 1.7μm) with retention time of 2.07, 0.29 and 1.58 min, respectively, by using mobile phases of 5mM ammonium acetate in 0.2% formic acid in water (A) and 5mM ammonium acetate in 0.2% formic acid in methanol (B) on gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Calibration curve was plotted over the range of 10-200 μg/mL for both of the analytes and equation was calculated by applying linear regression method. Detections of daughter ions (sofosbuvir-530 to 243m/z, GS331007-261 to 112.1m/z and clopidogrel- 322 to 154.9m/z) were done in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode and weights were analyzed by using Linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer with turbo spray ion source. The developed method has been successfully used for quantification of drug concentration of sofosbuvir and GS331007 to see the safety of sofosbuvir in patients of HCV infection with renal failures.<br><br></p> Ruchi Singhala Pramil Tiwaria Ajay Dusejab Raja Ramachandranc Ajay Patiald Savita Attrid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 59 66 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.659 Bioactive Constituent Profiling of Poly Herbal Distillate Thiribhaladi Dravagam to Evaluate Its Credible Therapeutic Role in Siddha Clinical Practices http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/637 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hydro distillation in Siddha medicine is the technique of extracting valuable principles from a pre-processed raw drug through the traditional process of distillation under a controlled temperature setting. <em>Thiribhaladi Dravagam</em> (TD) is one of the polyherbal distillate formulation stated in the Tamil medical text specified for phlegmatic affections. The drug was subjected to GC-MS studies to screen its bioactive sketch. <strong>Methods</strong>: Two sets of raw drug samples from different locations were collected. The raw drugs were purified and pre-processed as per the classical literature and distilled in a traditional apparatus. Two distillate samples (TD 1 &amp; TD 2) were prepared from the set of ingredients and were screened for its constituents. <strong>Results</strong>: The Gas chromatogram of TD 1 revealed 4 prominent peaks with retention time ranging from 4.84 to 8.27. TD 2 reported 8 prominent peaks with retention time ranging from 3.35 to 7.88.&nbsp; The study testified the presence of active volatile metabolites like aldehydes and oxygenated monoterpenes like citral and borneol, monocyclic alcoholic compounds like terpineol and organic acids like caprylic acid from both the samples. TD 2 reported more pharmacologically valuable lead molecules than TD 1, which may be due to the variation in diversity of the two sets of raw drug samples. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The bio constituents of TD was found to be pharmacologically significant from the review of various reputed research works supporting the traditional claim on its role in &nbsp;the respiratory system and for maintaining good health. Through the review of <em>Thiribhaladi Dravagam</em> and its analytical part performed through GC-MS, the medical applications of TD in multiple clinical associations and as a perfect health promoter has been justified for promoting its traditional value.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vinayak S Gayatri R Eugene Wilson Shyamala Rajkumar K.N Sunil Kumar S. Selvarajan Kanakavalli K ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 67 72 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.637 Potential Emphasis of Formulated Herbal Cream on Wound Healing http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/639 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The present study was to formulate and evaluate the herbal cream comprising extracts of different medicinal plants.</p> <p><strong>Experimental:</strong> The aqueous extract of all selected plants (<em>Chenopodium album</em>, <em>Coccinia indica, Momordica dioica, Praecitrullus fistulosus </em>and<em> Trichosanthes dioica</em>) were prepared by successive solvent extraction using soxhlet apparatus. Topical herbal cream was formulate and examined on different parameters like colour, consistency, pH, viscosity, spreadability and stability. Pharmacological evaluation of formulated herbal cream was done with excision and incision wound models.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> Based on the resultant findings obtained from the different evaluation&nbsp; parameters,&nbsp; it&nbsp; can&nbsp; be&nbsp; concluded&nbsp; that&nbsp; prepared&nbsp; herbal formulation&nbsp; was&nbsp; stable&nbsp; and&nbsp; safe&nbsp; to&nbsp; use in wound healing activity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Yogesh Shivhare Alok Pal Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 73 77 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.639 The Rationality of the Use of Intravenous Preparations in Diarrhea Patients in the Tk Ii Putri Hijau Kesdam I Bukit Barisan Hospital http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/638 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to evaluate the rationality of the use of intravenous preparations during diarrhea therapy which is limited to the right patient, the right indication, the right drug and the right dose.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: the study used descriptive and retrospective design by medical record of the TK II Putri Hijau KESDAM I Bukit Barisan hospital Medan. The criteria taken are patients with diarrhea with bacterial infections in the period of January – December 2018.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: the intervened&nbsp; variable were the rationality of the use of intravenous preparations during diarrhea with bacterial infections.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome</strong> <strong>measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study were the right patient, the right indication, the right drug and the right dose for diarrhea patients with bacterial infections..</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; there were 885 diarrhea patients included in the inclusion criteria out of a total of 1,302 patients. Inaccurated of drugs used during diarrhea therapy were ceftriaxonee that overdosed in 36 cases and ciprofloxacin that overdosed by 14 cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: it could&nbsp; be concluded that the inaccurate use of ceftriaxonee and ciprofloxacin were included in the incorrect criteria of the right dose for patients with diarrhea with bacterial infections.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Darmayanto D Wiryanto W Edy Suwarso ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 8 1 29 34 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.638 Nebulizer – In vitro Bioequivalence testing requirements: A review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/647 <p>Generic Nebulized aerosol is often perceived as inferior to their branded counterparts; however, they are safe and effective if they can meet the regulatory requirements. International regulatory agencies have developed recommendations and guidance for bioequivalence approaches of orally inhaled drug products (OIDPs) for local action. The objective of this article is to discuss the approaches can be used for to show bioequivalence requirement for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States of America (USA) with reference product. This review endorsed that inhalation solutions and suspensions undertaken to determine the drug substance delivery rate, total drug substance delivered and Aerodynamic assessment of nebulized aerosols [aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD)/droplet size distribution (DSD)].These are the most important parameters in characterization, evaluation and bioequivalence studies of nebulizers. These devices operate continuously; once loaded and require little or no co-ordination on the part of user they proved that these devices suitable for weak, pediatric or geriatric patients. The regulatory agencies declared that; there is no specific requirements testing in case of nebulizers like Metered dose inhalers (MDI) and Dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In United States of America (USA) regulation falls under the auspices of centre for devices and radiological health (CDRH), and new devices require 510(k) premarket notification. This review outlines all the bioequivalence test parameter.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shubham Prajapati Sanjay Saha B Shambulingappa Dilip Kumar Ch. Bikash Sahoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 8 1 78 81 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.647 Astrological Biochemistry of Vitamins http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/635 <p>Vitamins are organic compounds and an integral part of the balanced diet. Biochemically they function as coenzymes. The vitamins belong to the zodiacal sign Virgo in astrological parlance. They complement medicine by the application of astrological knowledge for the eradication of aliments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank Dimri Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 82 85 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.635 A Review on Micropropagation Culture Method http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/653 <p>Micropropagation is a vegetative propagation conducted under controlled and aseptic conditions in the microenvironment of the culture vessel, which have the all growth requirements of a plant in the natural conditions. Recently different techniques of propagation have been developed which could facilitate large scale production of plants and for the improvement of the species. An overview on the in vitro propagation via meristem culture, callus culture and protoplast culture etc. are presented here. Today micropropagation techniques are applied in order to produce large numbers of new high-quality plants in a relatively short time and space, in low cost and can also be preserved.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nikita Gupta Vidhi Jain Merin Rosy Joseph Siwani Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 86 93 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.653 A Review on Herbal Drug Interaction http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/663 <p>Herbal medicines are becoming popular worldwide, despite their mechanisms of action being generally unknown, the lack of evidence of efficacy, and inadequate toxicological data. An estimated one third of adults in developed nations and more than 80% of the population in many developing countries use herbal medicines in the hope of promoting health and to manage common maladies such as colds, inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and central nervous system diseases. To date, there are more than 11 000 species of herbal plants that are in use medicinally and, of these, about 500 species are commonly used in Asian and other countries. These herbs are often co-administered with therapeutic drugs raising the potential of drug–herb interactions, which may have important clinical significance based on an increasing number of clinical reports of such interactions.The interaction of drugs with herbal medicines is a significant safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices (e.g. warfarin and digoxin). Because the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of the drug may be altered by combination with herbal remedies, potentially severe and perhaps even life-threatening adverse reactions may occur. Because of the clinical significance of drug interactions with herbs, it is important to identify drugs and compounds in development that may interact with herbal medicines. Timely identification of such drugs using proper in vitro and in vivo approaches may have important implications for drug development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anshu Chhabra Gurvinder Singh Yash Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 94 99 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.663 Review on Effects of NSAID`S on Different Systems http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/621 <p>Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are amongst the most commonly prescribed medication. Some are available over the counter and likely to be abused. The gastrointestinal (GI), renal and cardiovascular (CV) side effects limit NSAIDs use. These side effects occurred at a rate as low as 1%–5% for NSAID users. The gastrointestinal (GI), renal and cardiovascular (CV) side effects limit NSAIDs use. Some studies&nbsp; have shown&nbsp; that an extra 2to8 per 1000 people per year may have a major vascular event from using an NSAID. Several studies demonstrated that conventional NSAIDs were associated with a higher risk of AKI and GN and decreased kidney hemodynamic functions, including sodium excretion. NSAIDs have a range of adverse effects mainly affecting the GI, renal and CV systems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Naresh Puppala Gantala Alekhya Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 8 1 100 109 10.22270/ajprd.v8i1.621