Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Application of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry with Dual Wavelength Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Ecstasy Tablet Content http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/823 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Ecstasy is a type of narcotic tablet and is very popularly used as a stimulant. The main content is Methylene dioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) and Methamphetamine (MA), but because a large amount of demand is not balanced with sufficient supply, ecstasy tablets are often adulterated with various contents, such as Paracetamol (PCT), Caffeine (KFN) and Ephedrine (EFD). Ecstasy tablets are often combined with other active compounds so that they can cause problems in determining the levels of tablets carried out in the Police Forensic Lab, so a cheaper, effective, and fast method is needed in determining the levels of these tablets.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research was conducted experimentally with the spectrophotometric method, namely the dual-wavelength method, then the validation was tested based on the validation parameters, namely linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. Then, this method was applied to determine levels of MA, EFD, KFN and PCT in tablet preparations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the application of the dual-wavelength method for the assay was carried out at λ 250.6 nm and 263 nm for KFN, at λ 263 nm and 281.8 nm for MA, at λ 259.4 nm and 255 nm for PCT at λ 255 nm and 236 nm for EFD, respectively. with a level result of 40.05; 1.63; 38.11; 20.21 for MA, EFD, KFN and PCT respectively, and with good precision and accuracy</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The dual-wavelength ultraviolet spectrophotometric method was successfully applied to determine the levels of MA, EFD, KFN and PCT mixtures in tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>methamphetamine, ephedrine, caffeine, paracetamol, dual wavelength method.</em></p> Hutagaol Debora Marsaulina Muchlisyam M Sinaga Siti Morin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 1 4 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.823 The Antihyperglycemic Activity of Sea Cucumber (Stichopushermanii) Ethanol Extract Against White Male Rats (Rattus novergicus) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/817 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The purpose of this study was to determine antihyperglycemic activity of Sea Cucumber (<em>Stichopushermanii</em>) ethanol extract on white male rats, by observing changes in blood glucose levels after being induced by streptozotocin.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong>The research method used was experimental laboratory, where as test animals were divided into several groups given the test substance. The tests performed on animals were glucose tolerance test and antihyperglycemia test after being induced by streptozotosin.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong>Test animals that have been grouped into each group were given 0.5% Na CMC suspension as a negative control, metformin 65 mg / kg bw as a positive control, extracts of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg / kg bw as test samples.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure:</strong>The results showed good results at a dose of 800 mg / kg bw in the 120<sup>th</sup> minute on the glucose tolerance test with blood glucose levels of 98.33 <u>+</u> 7.02, and the antihyperglycemic activity test after the rats were induced by streptozotocin with blood glucose levels of 65.84 <u>+</u> 2.93 on the 15<sup>th</sup> day. This value was not significantly different from the positive control (metformin) with a p value<u>&gt;</u> 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Ethanol extract of sea cucumber (<em>Stichopushermanii</em>) has antihyperglycemic activity at a dose of 800 mg / kg bw.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rahmadani R Rosidah R Mahdi Jufri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 5 8 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.817 Determination of Sun Protection Factor of Blemish Balm Nanocream Containing Avobenzone, Octyl Methoxycinnamate, and Vitamin C http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/841 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine sun protection factor of blemish balm nanocream (BB nanocream) containing avobenzone, octyl methoxycinnamate and vitamin C.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The formulation of blemish balm nanocreams using a combination of a variety of concentrations of vitamin C (5, 7.5, and 9%), 3% avobenzone, and 7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate. The safety of the BB nanocream containing the highest concentration of vitamin C was examined using skin and eye irritation tests on the rabbit. SPF value of BB nanocreams determined by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry method and compared with BB cream.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All BB nanocream containing vitamin C, avobenzone, and octyl methoxycinnamate did not irritate the eyes and skin of rabbits. The SPF value of BB nanocream containing a combination of 3% avobenzone, 7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate and vitamin C of 5, 7 and 9% were 18.0497, 21,0857, and 21.5883 respectively. The SPF value of BB nanocream without avobenzone, octyl methoxycinnamate and vitamin C was 10.4798 and bb krim was 15,8515.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> All BB nanocream formula containing 3% avobenzone, 7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate and Vitamin C (5%, 7%, and 9%) were not irritating the eyes and rabbit skin. The BB nanocream containing 3% avobenzone, 7.5% octyl <strong>methoxycinnamate and 9% vitamin C has the highest SPF value</strong><strong>. </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Julianty S. M Arianto A Yuandani Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 9 13 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.841 Effect of L-carnitine on sperm parameters in patients with Thalassemia major: A pilot study http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/820 <p><strong>Background:</strong> More than one-half of men with transfusion dependent thalassemia major (TDTM) are dealing with decreased fertility potentials. As antioxidants such as L-carnitine were reported to improve fertility in healthy males, we aimed to assay the effect of L-carnitine on sperm parameters in adult males with TDTM.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty six male TDTM patients older than 18 years were included in a pilot study, all had semen analysis; 3 were found to be azoospermic and were excluded. So further analysis for sperms and DNA defects was conducted on the remaining 10 participants. Participants were then given L-carnitine for 3 months. All sperm parameters were reassessed after therapy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In patients with low volume ejaculation, the mean volume of semen increased significantly (p=0.034). In oligospermic patients with a mean sperm concentration of 4.62 million/mL, the mean sperm concentration raised to 22.50 million/mL after therapy (p=0.008). In patients who had lower than normal sperm motility percentage and sperm progressive motility percentage, both variables raised after therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thalassemia major patients showed significant increase in sperm concentration and sperm motility with the use of L-carnitine.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Azadeh Kiumarsi Amir Hesabi Masoumeh Tavanayan Davoud Amirkashani Azita Azarkeivan Mohammad Ali Molavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 14 17 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.820 Characterization and Tablet Property Evaluation of Pregelatinized Starch of Teff (Eragrostis tef ) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/819 <p>Starch is a multifunctional pharmaceutical excipient in solid dosage formulations and obtained from different sources. Teff (Eragrostis tef) grain is a source of major staple food in Ethiopia and contains starch. Teff starch was extracted from milled teff flour using 0.075% sodium metabisulphite. The starch was pregelatinized at 60 oC, 70 oC and 80 oC temperatures.&nbsp; When characterized, the pregelatinized teff starches had enhanced physical attributes such swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, granule density, Carr’s index, Hausener’s ratio, flow rate and angle of repose. When incorporated as disintegrant in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulation at 5% and 10% concentrations, tablets containing pregelatinized teff starches showed faster disintegration time and better compressibility compared to the native starch. Tablets containing pregelatinized teff starch at 70 oC and 10% concentration had the fastest disintegration time with 7.55 min. Pregelatinization, a non-expensive type of physical starch modification can be used to enhance excipient attributes of teff starch for its use as disintegrant in tablet formulations.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Fasiledes Assefa Jemal Dilebo Tesfaye Gabriel Yonas Brhane Kebede Wondu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 18 23 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.819 Comparison of In-vitro Penetration of Transdermal Patch Containing Pure Diclofenac Sodium and Nanoparticles as Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/843 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Diclofenac sodium is a Non Steroid Anti Inflammatory class of drug which has a weakness in oral use in the form of irritation of the digestive tract. This study aims to make transdermal patches containing pure sodium diclofenac and nanoparticles with ethyl cellulose (EC) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymers and compare in-vitro penetration using franz diffusion cells.</p> <p><strong>Design: </strong>This research is an experimental research which will be calculated quantitatively percent cumulative penetration of pure diclofenac sodium and nanoparticles from the transdermal patch for 8 hours.</p> <p><strong>Intervention: </strong>The variables that play a role in this research are pure diclofenac sodium and nanoparticles, both using and without enhancers</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: In this study, the main measurement is the absorbance value of diclofenac sodium using a spectrophotometer, which penetrates the skin on franz diffusion cells and is converted to percent cumulative penetration.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Transdermal patches containing diclofenac sodium nanoparticles have a higher cumulative percent penetration (58.87 ± 0.7458%) than transdermal patches containing pure sodium diclofenac (46.6 ± 1.9438%), but not higher than transdermal patches containing pure sodium diclofenac with the addition of propylene glycol enhancers (67.59 ± 1.4675%). The three transdermal patch formulas did not differ significantly to the percent cumulative drug penetration (p&gt; 0.05).Transdermal patches containing diclofenac sodium nanoparticles have a higher analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect than transdermal patches containing pure sodium diclofenac up to 480 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Transdermal patches containing sodium diclofenac nanoparticles have been shown to be able to increase drug penetration through the rabbit's stomach skin membrane in-vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Transdermal patches of pure diclofenac sodium and nanoparticles provided analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that were significantly different from negative control.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zakaria Nurmalia Bangun Hakim Harahap Urip ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 24 31 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.843 A Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Nanocollagen from Snakehead Fish (Channa Striata) Bone http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/791 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to find out the collagen compounds of the isolation result of the fish bones of the Snakehead have fulfilled the standard of fish collagen and can be formed into nanocollagen.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> All extraction processes are conducted at 4 <sup>0</sup>C. Snakehead's bones are soaked with a solution of NaOH 0.1 M with a ratio of 1:10 for 12 hours with occasional stirring, immersion is performed twice every 6 hours (pre-treatment process), then neutralized with bidistilled water up to pH 7. Extracted with a solution CH<sub>3</sub>COOH 0.5 M with a ratio of 1:10 for 3 days (check pH), added bidistilled water until pH 4.6. The filtrate is centrifuged at a speed of 4000 rpm for 15 minutes (the residue obtained is extracted back by the same treatment). Acquired Supernatan added 10% NaCl is allowed for 24 hours (collagen precipitate). The precipitate is dried in an oven with a temperature 40 0C for 24 hours, the sample is dry mashed, collagen powder obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Moisture content and an ash content of the collagen's bone isolation is obtained at 0.50%. The protein content of the cored collagen is 85.20%. The existence of fat in the collagen of the Snakehead fishbone is an impurities element that needs to be eliminated through the pretreatment process optimization.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Collagen compounds result from the isolation of the Snakehead fish bones meet the standard of fish collagen, including moisture content, ash content, protein levels, and fat levels and can be formed into nanocollagen.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kanne Dachi Julia Reveny Anayanti Arianto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 32 36 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.791 Test of Active Compound and Activity Pirdot Leaf Extract (Sauraia Vulcani Korth.) on Candida Albicans Growth in Vitro http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/825 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to determine the activity of pirdot leaf extract on the growth of Candida albicans in vitro</p> <p><strong>Design</strong>: this study was a true experiment with a post-test only control group research design. The method used agar diffusion using Kirby Bauer technique. This study used 4 variations concentration namely 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80%, positive control (ketoconazole tablets), and negative control (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Interventions</strong>: the intervened variable were compound content and antifungal activity of pirdot leaf extract concentration of inhibitory effect.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures</strong>: the main measurement in this study was the inhibition&nbsp; concentration of pirdot leaf extract on <em>Candida albicans</em> growth</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; the results showed that the inhibitory from a concentration of 10% of 8.96 mm, the highest inhibition was at 80% of 18.33 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: it could&nbsp; be concluded that pirdot leaf extract has antifungal activity against<em> Candida albicans.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Antifungal; Candida albicans; Diffusison Method; Saurauia vulcani Korth</em></p> Romauli Anna Teresia Marbun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 37 40 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.825 Formulation and Evaluation of Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana L.) Oil in Gel Preparation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/842 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The purpose of this study was toformulate a gel preparation from the candlenut (<em>Aleurites moluccana</em>) oil. Theresulting formula was evaluated bytest of organoleptic, homogeneity, surface dispersion, pH value, and gel stability during storage.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong>This research was conducted by making a gel preparation containing candlenut oil as the active ingredient with various concentrations. The basic ingredients used were carbopol, hydrogenated castor oil (HCO), propylene glycol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben and distilled water. Evaluation of formula and stability was carried out in storage for 12 weeks. Formula tests were carried out to assess the physical form of the preparation, the resulting pH, and the stability during storage.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong>The formulas were varied in three different concentrations of active substances, namely 15%, 20% and 25% candlenut oil. Evaluation of formulawas compared with negative control, gel base without active substances.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measure</strong><strong>ment</strong><strong>:</strong>The results show that the resulting gel has a consistency similar to general gel (semisolid), white in color and has the smell of candle oil. The whole gel has good homogeneity. The pH value of each formula is around 6.0-6.4. The surface dispersibility diameter is 5.3-5.7 cm. The whole formula is stable in storage for 12 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>Candlenut oil can be formulated in gel form and has good characteristics and stability.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong><em>Aleurites moluccana</em>, formula evaluation, gel formulation</p> Leny L Evi Ekayanti Ginting, Mr. Ihsanul Hafiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 41 43 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.842 Assess the Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Leaves of Raphanus Sativus – An In Vivo Design http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/840 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Natural products found from plants have been conveying a vital role among human being since ancient times. An enormous number of scientific reports evidenced of using the medicinal plants as natural remedies. Nowadays, the medicinal plant is using as an alternative medicine to synthetic drugs. The use of medicinal plants singly or in combination in treating different ailments has been practiced by traditional medical healers for a very long time. People of Mesoamerica have utilized plants and products from plants in curing and relieving ailments for centuries.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present aim of the study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Ethanolic Extract of leaves of <em>Raphanus sativus</em> (EERS) on animal models and therefore to determine the scientific basis for its use in traditional medicine in the management of anti-inflammatory condition.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema methods. Analgesic activity of Ethanolic Extract of leaves of <em>Raphanus sativus</em> (EERS) was estimated against a hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin tests.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with a dose-dependent manner. Anti-inflammatory activity of olive tree extract at 250 and 500mg/kg doses was more important compared to the used standard drugs (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05), in both carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema tests. In analgesic assays, results showed that 500mg/kg dose of olive tree extract has a significant analgesic effect through both peripheral and central mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study provided evidence on the traditionally claimed uses of the plant in pain and inflammatory diseases, and&nbsp;<em>Raphanus sativus</em> could be potential source for development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Devi Manisha Karnati Naga Rashi Kapilavai Harini Narender Boggula Vasudha Bakshi Mohammed Sayeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 44 51 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.840 Anti-Stress Activity (in-vivo) of Multi Herbal Capsule-Trasina® in Experimental Murine Model http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/839 <p><strong>Background: </strong>In this modern era, stress has become a developing devil of human life.To maintain the healthy lifestyle measures adopted for smooth livelihood, stressshould be kept under control.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main aim and objective of the study was to find out the antistress activity of a multi herbal capsule Trasina® against anoxia stress tolerance, chemical induced stress, swimming endurance stress and immobilisation stress models inswiss albino mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Trasina® was screened for its antistress activity at 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, p.o. doses and diazepam was applied as reference standard drug at 2 mg/kg i.p. dose.Anoxia stress tolerance time, number of writhes, immobility time, organs weight of animals and estimating biochemical parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) along with triglyceride were measured to evaluate antistress activity of the formulation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Administration of Trasina® showed significant increases in anoxia stress tolerance time and significant decreases in number of writhes and immobility time in mice as compared with control untreated animals. In immobilisation stress model we observed that treatment with Trasina® significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and triglyceride levels. Moreover in stressful condition liver and adrenal gland weight were significantly increased whereas spleen weight was significantly decreased. Treatment with Trasina® maintained the normal organs weight as compared with stressful group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion it clearly showed that Trasina® possessed significant antistress activity and maintain normal homeostasis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Soumendra Darbar Darbar Srimoyee Saha Shyamaprasad Chattopadhyay Atiskumar Chattapadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 52 58 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.839 Repurposing of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/838 <p><strong>Back ground:</strong> Anti-oxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS).&nbsp;Free radical and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are basically the main cause of several disorders in humans that are generated as an imbalance between formation and neutralization of pro-oxidants resulting in oxidative stress. They cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA, eventually leading to many chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, aging and other degenerative diseases in humans. Various studies have been done to identify anti-oxidants from plant sources and efforts have been taken to incorporate it in conventional therapy.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the present research work is to assess the repurposing potential of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor by checking its anti-oxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Anti-oxidant potential of the vildagliptin was studied using different <em>in vitro</em> methods. The anti-oxidant activity was estimated by using DPPH radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and reducing power assay methods. The ascorbic acid used as a standard reducing agent. All the analysis was made with the use of UV-Visible spectrophotometer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The extract showed good dose dependent free radical scavenging property in both the models used in this study. The results of the assay showed that it possesses significant free radical scavenging and reducing power properties at concentration-dependent manner.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study suggests that&nbsp;<em>vildagliptin</em> exhibit great potential for anti-oxidant activity and may be useful for their medicinal functions. However, further exploration is necessary for effective use in both modern systems of medicines. This will further trigger extensive research for better understanding of the impact of&nbsp;<em>vildagliptin</em> on health.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sravanthi Reddy Nulaka Anusha Nimmala Rakesh Pasupuleti Sripriya Ieppala Narender Boggula Vasudha Bakshi Naveen Pathakala ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 59 66 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.838 Comparison Effect of Natural and Synthetic Superdisintigrants In Fast Dissolving Tablet Formulation http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/775 <p>The main object of the recent and present study is to develop the oral fast disintegrating tablets of levolfloxacin HCL using natural and synthetic disintegrants in order to find out the difference in drug release from the dosage form levofloxacin is an antibiotic which is used to treat number bacterial infection including&nbsp; , pneumonia ,urinary tract infections,chronicprostatitis and some type of gastroenteritis.we prepared levofloxacin HCL superdisintegranting tablet to treat bacterial infections.we studied the use of natural and synthetic disintrgrants in the preparation of levofloxacin tablet. The present study comprise all information of superdisintigrants including its type , mechanism ,selection criteria ,ideal properties incorporation method and advantage which are being used in the formulation to provide the safer ,effective drug delivary with patients compliance.</p> Ranu Sharma Vijay Kachhawa Junaid Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 67 71 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.775 Synthesis of Schiff’s Bases With Simple Synthetic Approach http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/837 <p>A series of Schiff’s bases (3A-G) were synthesized using a simple synthetic approach.0.05 mole of&nbsp; m-nitro aniline and aromatic aldehydes in ethanolic solution was subjected to refluxed for 2 hr to obtain pure products. All the products obtained were having excellent yield in the range of 80-90 % w/w. Products were purified using hot ethanol and reaction was monitored by hexane: ethyl acetate (60:40).</p> Nikam Dhiraj Nikam Rutuja Shinde Kalpesh Karande Sunil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 72 74 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.837 The Degradation Rates of Natural Dyes from Natural Resources: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/827 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Natural plants can produce natural dyes. These dyes are widely used in the pharmaceutical and food fields, such as betacyanin, anthocyanin, carotenoids, flavonoids and others. Several external factors could cause natural dyes to show instability or degradation, some of the external factors are temperature, pH, storage time and so forth. Research on various kinds of natural dyes shows the degradation of these natural dyes. Degradation can cause damage to these plants dyes, therefore steps are needed to prevent the degradation of these dyes. The measurement of degradation was carried out to prevent the deterioration of natural dyes from natural materials that will be used or consumed. The purpose of this review is to determine the rate of degradation of natural dyes sourced from nature in accordance with the results of the studies that have been conducted.</p> <p>Data Sources Study Selection: Data sources of this review article taken from web Google Scholar, Science Direct, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Scopus, and Pubmed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Natural dyes can be used for manufacture of food or drinks, natural dyes from plants instability due to degradation. Degradation occur because temperature, pH, storage time and sunlight.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yesi Armalina Zikra Azizah Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 75 81 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.827 A Review: Natural Resources as Natural Dyes in Pharmaceutical Products http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/826 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Several types of natural dyes have been used in pharmaceutical products such as food, beverages, cosmetics and drug additives. Natural dyes are safe and do not cause allergies or irritation to the body. The benefits of natural dyes are as a substitute for synthetic dyes which are safer for the body. The purpose of this article is to discuss natural dyes that are applied or added to pharmaceutical products or the pharmaceutical industry.</p> <p><strong>Data Sources Study Selection:</strong> The review method used is by studying the literature relevant to the research. Data sources of this article were selectively taken from Google Schoolar, Pubmed, and Mandeley.</p> <p><strong>Summary of contents of the article:</strong>&nbsp; Pharmaceutical products always Use coloring additives for consumer appeal. The addition of dyes to pharmaceutical products such as drugs will make it easier to distinguish between these types of drugs. Dyes that are safe for the body are chosen as a safe alternative in their use. Natural dyes can be derived from plants, minerals, and animals, many plants contain pigments and can be applied to pharmaceutical products such as food, beverages, cosmetics, and medicines. There are many kinds of pigments contained in plants and animals, such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, indigoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoids.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The conclusion of this article is that natural dyes cannot only be used as a substitute for dyes that are safe for the body, but natural dyes also have pharmacological properties. The application of natural dyes to food, beverages, cosmetics and medicines does not affect the taste, aroma and texture of the product</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shintasya Novelia. D. A Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 82 87 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.826 A Review: Analysis of Betacyanin Levels in Various Natural Products http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/846 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Betacyanin is a pigment that can be used as a natural pigment for food and as an alternative to synthetic dyes because it has an attractive color. Other than that, it also dissolves easily in water, and has high antioxidant activity so it is safer for the body when consumed. The purpose of this article is to discuss the levels of betacyanin in various natural products that can be analyzed using methods UV-Vis Spectrotometer, HPLC.</p> <p><strong>Data Sources Study Selection: </strong>The review method used is by studying the literature relevant to the research. Data sources of this article were selectively taken from Google Schoolar, Pubmed, Science Direct, Researchgate and Mandeley.</p> <p><strong>Summary of contents of the article:</strong> Betacyanin is one of the most widely used natural dyes in food. Betacyanin is a pigment that functions to provide a red color and has the potential to be a natural dye for food that is safer for health than synthetic dyes. Betacyanin is found in plants such as in red dragon fruit (<em>Hylocereus polyrhiyus</em>), beets (<em>Beta vulgaris L.</em>), cactus fruit (<em>Opuntia elatior Mill.</em>), and in Inflorescence <em>Celosia</em>. The level analysis was carried out in various types of plants that were known to contain betacyanin, the most common method used in analyzing the levels of betacyanin was using a &nbsp;UV-Vis spectrofotometer and HPLC with the results of the study showing that the observed betacyanin had a maximum wavelength of 538 nm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Betacyanin is of betalain pigments which can be used as a natural dye alternative to synthetic dyes. The analysis of betacyanin levels was tested in various plants. Betacyanin has a sligtly different levels in various natural products that has been widely analyzing using the UV-Vis spectrofotometer &nbsp;and HPLC methods.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Larra Halimfanezi Rusdi Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 88 95 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.846 Pork DNA Contamination in Pharmaceutical Products: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/845 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> A country with a muslim majority population, halal in food product as well as no food product including pharmaceutical product has been main concerned. Several materials which used on pharmaceutical product such as gelatin, collagen and fat content synthesized or extracted from mammalia such as bovine, fish, and also porcine. Product sourced from pork and its derivatives was prohibited for muslim . This review presents about methods to detect pork content in pharmaceutical products and information about pharmaceutical products that are positively contaminated with pork ingredients and their derivatives related to halal status for muslims.</p> <p><strong>Data Sources Study Selection:</strong> The method used in this research was study of literature. Literatures used in this paper were based on publication of the last ten years (2010-2020). Data sources of this review article taken from various online journal search sites such as digital library, Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and E-Resources.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Conclusion: A result of this review were found 36 capsule samples, 7 gelatin of soft candy gelatin, 4 cosmetic product, amniotic fluid, placenta, oleic acid, stearate acid/stearic alcohol, lanolin alcohol and propylene glycol are positive contain pork DNA. The analytical method used to detect the content of pork and its derivatives in pharmaceutical products such as PCR, HPLC, Nano UPLCESI-Q-TOFMS, FTIR, Liquid Chromatography–Tandem&nbsp; Mass Spectroscopy, Liquid Scintillation Counting, PEME, ELISA, and SDS-PAGE Both Conventional and Combined.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nonik Widya Firma Zikra Azizah Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 8 5 96 104 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.845 New Perspective of Life Style Drugs http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/774 <p>The life style drugs have opened a new therapeutical horizon in pharmaceutical scenario. They have booming market and became multi-million dollar international industry. The new categories of drugs – anti-obesity, anti-dementia and anti-phobial are included in them. Nootropics are novel life style products for males.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank Dimri Virbal Singh Rajwar Luv Kush Alok Maithani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 105 108 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.774 Pallavi S Mhaske, Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale, Vijaya B Mehetre, Kanchan P Pandhare, Vaishnavi U Petkar, Kailash R. Biyani http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/833 <p>Parkinson’s disease (PD), or simply Parkinson’s, is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. Parkinson's sickness (PD) has a place with a gathering of conditions called motor system issues, which cause unintended or wild developments of the body. The precise cause of PD is unknown, but some cases are hereditary while others are thought to occur from a combination of genetics and environmental factors that trigger the disease.&nbsp; In PD, brain cells become damaged or die in the part of the brain that produces dopamine--a chemical needed to produce smooth, purposeful movement.</p> <p>Parkinson's ailment is a dynamic sensory system issue that influences development. Indications start progressively, in some cases beginning with a scarcely observable quake in only one hand. Quakes are normal, however the confusion additionally ordinarily causes solidness or easing back of development.In this review article we include Introduction ,How&nbsp; to Parkinson’s disease occurs , mechanism , pathophysiology , Diagnosis , treatment , medication , causes , symptoms&nbsp; of Parkinson’s disease .</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pallavi S Mhaske Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale Vijaya B Mehetre Kanchan P Pandhare Vaishnavi U Petkar Kailash R Biyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 109 113 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.833 A Review of Microneedles – Elevation to TDDS Approach and Function in Management of Psoriasis http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/830 <p>Novel drug delivery system offers several advantages which could outweigh the benefits of other drug delivery system. The transdermal drug delivery system being one of them offers supremacy by by-passing the first pass metabolism which eventually helps in eradication of gastrointestinal irritation. The first patent for microneedles was field in 1970’s, researchers on utilizing microneedles as a drug delivery system has progress significantly. This review aims to provide background on microneedles, clinical benefits and function of microneedles. The microneedle method is much more superior to those traditional transdermal delivery ways because of advantage such as invasive painless, convenience and improves patient compliance. Every type of microneedles has different advantages according to their unique properties and designs. We developed a dissolving microneedle (MN) patch made of hyaluronic acid (HA) with excellent water solubility, biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The traditional therapeutic method is diverse embracing topical drugs, systemic drugs, physical therapy etc.&nbsp; with the limitation of present drug, the demand for new delivery method for psoriasis is in the spotlight. The major drawback of the transdermal drug delivery system is the hindrance created via skin into the systemic circulation. Thus in order to overcome this hurdle a replacement to this type of novel drug delivery system. One of the best pharmaceutical dosage form for those patients. They cannot take medicaments orally. TDDS established itself as an integral part of NDDS.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saurabh Nandkisor Bodkhe R. H. Kale K. R. Biyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 114 122 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.830 A Review on Current Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Disease http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/828 <p>Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS characterized by the demyelination and axonal loss. The incidence of the MS is increasing worldwide. The underlying cause of MS and mechanisms behind this increase remain opaque, although complex gene, environmental interactions almost certainly play a significant role. The epidemiology of MS indicates the low serum level serum level of vitamin D, smoking and childhood obesity are likely to play a role in disease development. Diagnostic criteria have been adapted to facilitate earlier diagnosis with increased sensitivity and specificity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Trupti C. Shinde Snehal M. Wagh Kaustubh B. Solanke P. N. Folane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 123 128 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.828 A review articles of Clinical outcomes, and the origin, transmission, Immunologic aspects of characteristics and public health response to novel corona virus (COVID19) http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/793 <p>diseased 2019 has spread throughout china and received worldwide attention, on 30<sup>th</sup> January 2020. World health organization officially declared the covid19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. In December 2019, cases of unidentified pneumonia with a history of exposure in the human sea food market were reported in wuhan, a novel corona virus was identified to be accountable for this disease, by world health organization confirmed that this disease can spread through human to human through droplet of sneezing, and its spread rapidly around the country and the world, as of 18<sup>th</sup> February 2020 the number of confirmed cases of covid19 had reached 75, 198 with 2009 fatalities. Serve acute respiratory syndrome and middle east respiratory syndrome, among the symptom composition of the 45 fatality cases has collected, several independent research groups have indentified that SARAS – CoV-2 belongs to the beta corona virus with highly angiotensin converting enzyme as that for&nbsp; SARAS – CoV-2, Corona viruses (CoVs), incorporated positive-sense RNA diseases, are depicted by the club-like spikes that adventure from their surface, an abnormally huge RNA genome, and a specific replication technique. CoVs cause a selection of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory sickness in chickens too possibly deadly human respiratory diseases. Here, we provide a quick presentation to CoVs talking.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Prangya P Acharya Prasant Kumar Panda Deepthi Kiran Ajay Kumar Sahu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 129 137 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.793 The Relationship of Non-Diseases with Life Style Drugs http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/797 <p>The concept of non – diseases emerged from clinical slippery. Top 20 non – diseases of non – medical academics were identified. Their relationship with life style drugs was explored.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mayank Dimri Virbal Singh Rajwar Luv Kush ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 8 5 138 139 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.797 Drug Information of Lasmiditan and Its Effectiveness for Maigraine http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/818 <p>Migraine is the leading cause of disability in people under 50 years of age and the second highest cause of disability worldwide with significant impact on the daily lives of patients and their families, 50-200mg lasmiditan is a serotonin (5-HT) 1F receptor agonist new class of medication needed for treatment of migraine, A latest drug with recent studies showns to be efficacious and safe for the prevention of migraine in adults, Lasmiditan was more effective than placebo for the acute treatment of migraine in patients concurrently using migraine preventive medications. Lasmiditan efficacy and safety measures were similar for patients using and not using preventive medications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abdul Mustaq Mohammed Nayak S P Srinivas Safi Ur-Rahman Mohammed Muneb Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 8 5 140 142 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.818 A Systematic Review Of Chronic Disease And Medication Adherences With Special Focus On Diabetes Mellitus And Hypertension. http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/844 <p>Adherence to chronic disease management is critical to achieving improved health outcomes, quality of life, and cost-effective health care. As the burden of chronic diseases continues to grow globally, so does the impact of non-adherence. Mobile technologies are increasingly being used in health care and public health practice (mHealth) for patient communication, monitoring, and education, and to facilitate adherence to chronic diseases management. Tight glycaemic control is essential, and good adherence is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalization in people with T2D. A significant number of people with T2D do not take medication as prescribed and therefore have poor outcomes. The key factors for not achieving targets include therapeutic inertia and adherence. Reasons for poor adherence include perception of treatment, com­plexity of treatment and adverse effects. &nbsp;Nonadherence is a common reason for treatment failure and treatment resistance. No matter how it is defined, it is a major issue in the management of chronic illnesses. There are numerous methods to assess adherence, each with its own strengths and weaknesses; however, no single method is considered the best. Nonadherence is common in patients with hypertension, and it is present in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure taking three or more antihypertensive agents. Availability of procedure-based treatment options for these patients has shed further light on this important issue with development of new methods to assess adherence. There is potential for mHealth tools to better facilitate adherence to chronic disease management, but the evidence supporting its current effectiveness is mixed. Further research should focus on understanding and improving how mHealth tools can overcome specific barriers to adherence.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Punam R. Pal Sharma Bhavesh R Bhavesh R Thakor Shivani R ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 8 5 143 149 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.844 Controlling vector-borne health issues and in-vitro effects of Nanoemulsion of essential Oils: A Review http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/824 <p>Controlling the parasitic and infectious diseases is a permanent health issue worldwide, requiring innovative methods for the prevention &amp; treatment of illness triggered by parasites. Controlling vector and its intermediate hosts is an effective method for anticipation of human and animal’s diseases. It is essential to have bioactive components that act competently on the agents which produce the illnesses. Synthetic agents have strong surplus effects in humans &amp; other animals, and they cause biological toxicity, affecting animals, plants and disturbing the local environment. Many studies have reported the effect of the Essential Oils (EOs). Essential Oils extracted from the medicinal plants are generally used as insect repellents worldwide. They are very safe and favorable to the environment with minimum ill-effects on animals and public health. It helps to control the vectors and also applicable against pathogens. Commonly Essential Oils easily degrade and cause less environmental pollution. Problems associated to solubility as well as stability lead to the improvement of effective carriers for formulations containing Essential Oils that is nanoemulsion. Nanoemulsion is a colloidal dispersion system, thermodynamically stable, prepared by two different non-miscible liquids assorted with emulsifying agents such as surfactants and co-surfactants, to form a single phase. Nanoemulsion a novel drug delivery system can be formulated by using two different techniques, the persuasion technique and the brute force technique. This review describes some studies accomplished with nanoemulsions as carriers of Essential Oils that have repellent, larvicidal, acaricidal, insecticidal and antiparasitic activities. Thus it can be used as substitutes in the vector control of parasitic and communicable diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nanoemulsion; essential oils; vector control; infectious diseases, insecticidal.</p> Anupam Kumar Pal Nisha Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 8 5 150 157 10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.824