Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development en-US Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2320-4850 <p><strong>AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:</strong></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0</a> Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Antifungal Active Fraction of Peria Pantai(Colubrina Asiatica (L.) Brong) Leaf Against Fluconazole-Resistance Candida Albicans <p><strong><em>Objective: </em></strong>A novel antifungal needs to be found to overcome fungal resistance to antifungal drugs. Medicinal plants contain biologically active compounds as antifungal agents. Peria Pantai (<em>Colubrinaasiatica</em> L. Brong) has been used as a folk medicine by the Acehnese community to treat skin disease. This research aim was to evaluate antifungal activity of&nbsp; <em>C. asiatica </em>leaf fraction against <em>Candidaalbicans </em>resistant fluconazole.<strong>Methode</strong>:&nbsp; The extraction was accomplished consecutively as solvent multistep using <em>n</em>-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol.&nbsp; Phytochemical investigation has done to each extract/fraction. The antifungal activity has been evaluated by <em>Kirby-Bauer </em>method.<strong>Result</strong>: <em>The result</em> of phytochemical investigation of <em>n</em>-hexane fraction contains steroid compound, ethyl acetate fraction contains saponin and steroid compounds, and the methanol fraction contains flavonoid, saponin, tannin, and steroid compounds. n-Hexane and ethyl acetate fraction of Peria Pantai leaf have not shown antifungal activity, while it has been shown on methanol fraction with inhibition zone 5,6; 7,17; 8,25; and 11,4 mm at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%concentration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sari Irma Nursanty Risa Yulidar Y ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 1 5 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.936 Antibacterial Activity Test of Ethanol Extract From Unripe Klutuk Banana Fruit (Musa Balbisiana Colla Bb) Towards Bacterial Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Escherichia Coli <p><strong>Object : </strong>This study aims to look at antibacterial activity Ethanol extracts from the flesh and peel of unripe klutuk banana fruit (<em>Musa balbisiana </em>Colla BB) against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods : </strong>Study included phytochemical screening, simplicial and extract characterization, antibacterial testing using a well diffusion method ethanol extracts from the flesh and peel of unripe klutuk banana fruit (<em>Musa balbisiana </em>Colla BB) against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong> The phytochemical test showed that both extracts contained alkaloid compounds, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and saponins. The fruit simplicial characterization of the flesh and peel contains 5% and 7.17% of water level; 14.55% and 11.61% of total ash level; 10.67% and 9.67% of water-soluble level; 9.67% and 9.67% of ethanol-soluble level. The ethanol extracts of the flesh and peel of unripe klutuk banana contains water level of 28.26% and 15.5%;total ash level of 10.16% and 14.09%; water-soluble level of 33.33% and 71.67%, and ethanol-soluble level of 69.16% and 78.33%. The highest activity of the peel ethanol extract towards <em>S. aureus</em> was obtained at 10% concentration with an inhibiting zone diameter of 9.3 mm and the highest activity of the flesh ethanol extract towards <em>E. coli </em>was obtained at 20% concentration with an inhibiting zone diameter of 8.63 mm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong> Antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus </em>by the ethanol extract from the peel was higher than ethanol extract from the flesh of the fruit. While antibacterial activity towards bacterial <em>E. coli </em>by the flesh of fruit showed better activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Misrahanum M Ririn Edra Depi Hira Helwati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 6 10 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.946 Vigna Comosa Baker Aerial Part’s Extracts Effects on Hyperglycemia and Hepatic Glucose’sliberation <p><em>Vignacomosa&nbsp;</em>Baker (<em>V. Comosa)</em> is a plant used by Beninese Oueme department’s populationfor the treatment of diabetes without any scientific study showing its effectiveness. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of theextracts of <em>V. Comosa</em>on hyperglycemic rabbits by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and on hepatic glucose liberation. Phytochemical screening revealed that the plant contains alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, mucilage, triterpenoids, steroids, reducing compounds, saponins, oses and holosides.Cytotoxity test showed that those extracts were free of toxicity. The extracts showed anti-hyperglycemic activities doses and time depending. The effective doses are 500 mg/kg for the aqueous extract and 1000 mg/kg for the ethanolic extract. The extracts are effective as compared with glibenclamide (reference product). Moreover, the <em>ex vivo</em> test conducted on the liver revealed that <em>V. Comosa</em> aqueous extract inhibits the hepatic glucose liberation and 500 mg/mL is the most effective dose. The results of this study account for the plant under consideration of its traditional usage in the treatment of diabetes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kotin Mahoutin Lucrèce Ahounouaikpe Fifamin Judith Akakpo Baï Huguette Assogba Mahoudo Fidèle Dansou Houndjovi Pierre Gbenou Joachim Djimon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 11 17 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.965 Stability Indicating Method Development and Validation for Assay of Omeprazole Sodium for Injection by a Rapid RP-HPLC <p>Omeprazole<strong>,<sup>13</sup></strong> a member of proton pump inhibitor, used for the treatment of peptic ulcers, it supresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting H<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup> ATPase. A new fundamental, rapid and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the assay of Omeprazole sodium for injection. It was validated according to ICH and FDA guidelines<strong> <sup>2</sup></strong>. The HPLC analysis was performed on Dionex ultimate 3000 system equipped with C-18 (150cm*4.6mm) 5µ column, with a mixture of ammonium acetate and acetonitrile buffer in the ratio 65:35 v/v as the mobile phase at the wavelength (λ) 305nm. The total run time was 8 minutes. The calibration curve was linear for 50-150% range of the analytical concentration of 40mg/ml, r<sup>2 </sup>was found to be 0.9998. The precision was calculated and % RSD was 0.1 % and the recovery of omeprazole was within the range of&nbsp; 98-102%. Validation parameters like robustness, solution stability studies, specificity and forced degradation studies were performed and found to be within acceptance limits. As compared to other methods, this method was found to be more accurate, linear, precise and specific, with short run time. All the results were acceptable and confirmed that the method is suitable for its intended use in routine quality control analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aishwarya Dande Gummadi Rishitha Reddy Gaddam Saithya Saithya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 18 26 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.943 Acoustical Studies& Molecular Interactions of Antiepileptic Drug Levitiracetam in DMSO-Water Mixtures at Different Temperatures <p>The densities and speeds of sound have been measured of ternary mixtures of Levitiracetam drug in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide&nbsp; (DMSO) mixtures at 25% interval of the solvent at 303K,308 K,313 K and frequency 2MHz .The experimental data has been used to determine acoustic parameters like intermolecular free length (L<sub>f</sub>),Specific acoustic impedence (z) etc.The changes in these properties with composition and temperature are used to interpret the nature of solute-solvent, solute-solute interactions in the system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kaushlendra Kumar Chandani Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 27 32 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.944 Analysis of Medicinal Chemicals Contained on Jamu: A Review <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Jamu</em> is commonly known as an Indonesian traditional herbal medicine that contains ingredients or ingredients derived from plants, animals, minerals, galenic, or mixtures of these ingredients that have been hereditary for medicinal use. Some studies reported the presence of medicinal chemicals that are deliberately added to <em>Jamu</em>. <em>Jamu</em>that containing medicinal chemicals usually had a faster healing effect compared to <em>Jamu</em> that do not contain medicinal chemicals. <em>Jamu</em> added medicinal chemicals cause serious side effects if it is consumed regularly, overdose, and long period consumption with uncontrolled dosage or its interaction with other substances on <em>jamu</em> formulation.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This review article aims to summarize several methods used to analyze medicinal chemicals contained in <em>jamu</em>.</p> <p><strong>Data source:</strong>The author created thisreview article by conducting literature studies. The literature was collected from national and international journals published in the last ten years (2010-2020). The works of literature were collected from trusted online journal sites such as the digital library, Google, Google scholar/Google Cendekia, PubMed, ScienceDirect, NCBI, Researchgate, and other E-resource with the keyword “<em>Jamu</em>”, “medicinal chemicals”, and “analysis of medicinal chemicals”.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>Jamu</em> products that containing medicinal chemicals are <em>jamu pegal linu</em>, weight loss, stamina enhancer, diabetes, antihypertensive and dietary supplements. The medicinal chemicals used are sodium diclofenac, paracetamol, piroxicam, ibuprofen, dexamethasone, mefenamic acid, phenolphthalein, sibutramine, fenfluramine, sildenafil, tadalafil, thiosildenafil, caffeine, ephedrine, nifedipine, glibenclamide. Herbal Medicine was analyzed by the TLC method (thin layer chromatography), Densitometry-chromatography, thin-layer chromatography-Spectrophotometry, SERS-thin layer chromatography, Spectrophotometry, HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography), HPLC-ESI-MS/MS (high-performance liquid. chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry), HPLC-Densitometry (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-densitometry), UHPLC-Q-ORTIP HERMS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry), UPLC/Q-TOF MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS), Capillary electrophoresis (CE), GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry), LC-MS (Liquid Crhomatogaph Mass) Spectrometry), Prototype Test-Strip, Infrared spectroscopy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sari Anggraini Syahfitr Dan Ridho Asra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 33 46 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.931 Potential anti-inflammatory effects of Psidium guajava L.: A review <p>Inflammation is a defence mechanism of a body against foreign substances. However, Inflammation also plays a key role in diseases such as diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Increasing scientific evidence has shown that fruits, vegetables, and legumes can have anti-inflammatory properties. This paper aims to provide recent studies on the anti-inflammatory properties of Psidium guajava L. A review was conducted on the studies of Psidium guajava L. anti-inflammatory properties performed during the past 10 years with the literature databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Google Scholar. Based on our eligibility criteria, a total of ten studies were included in this paper. The studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Psidium guajava occurs mainly through inhibition of PGE2, COX-2, NO, iNOS, ERK1/2, leukocyte cell migration, and suppression of edema, paw withdrawal latency as well as exhibited a membrane stabilization effect. This review has demonstrated the importance of Psidium guajava L. as a natural anti-inflammatory potential.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. Sofyan souri Sri Oktavia Ifora ifora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 47 52 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.941 Concept of Health Across Different Ages: A Review <p>Health is not just absence of disease rather health is a holistic well being in terms of physical, psychological as well as environmental health of an individual. At different stages of live human beings attach different meaning to the concept of health. In childhood development of the child is central to the concept of health. In this paper perception and issues of health at different stages of human life are discussed. In human life childhood is all about timely and proper development of the child physically, mentally, emotionally and socially to develop the child into a responsible adult. Children who face developmental issues or health issues receive specific kind of interventions which are absolutely needed for their condition. These interventions are different from that of adults like small dosage of medicine to children or different intervention of therapy in children than in adults. Similarly in adults the perception of health and issues of health also differ from other stages. The interventions too at this stage are highly specific to the condition those are trying to cure. Lastly in old age there is different perception of health, old aged people generally experience many physical ailments like arthritis, hearing impairment and heart related issues etc. care of these people must be done catering to their specific needs. Taking care of old people is different from that of an adult or a child. Older people need extra attention because in old age they usually are dependent on someone’s care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shreya Talreja Dr. Shashank Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 53 56 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.940 Mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery system: An overview <p>Pharmaceutical scientists around the globe have been seeking to discover as an alternative to injections over the last few, transdermal and transmucosal routes decades. The buccal cavity mucosa the most convenient and easily available site for the distribution of local and systemic therapeutic agents was found to be dosage forms among the numerous transmucosal sitesavailable.Theories and various polymers used in mucoadhesive drug delivery. Mucoadhesive polymers increases the residence time, prolong the absorption, enhances solubilityand dissolution characteristics of poorly soluble drugs. In addition, we are focused on the latest generation of mucoadhesion polymers, led by the latest formulation of mucoadhesive for the distribution of oral drugs, such as thiolated polymers. A good insight into mucoadhesion polymers, the mucoadhesive phenomenon and the factors that can affect polymer mucoadhesion is given in the current analysis. The systematic drug delivery has been investigated for buccal mucosa and local drug treatment or therapy is subjected to first pass metabolism. Oral mucosa drug delivery by discussing the structural features of mucosa, mechanism of mucoadhesion. General consideration in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers and the various evalution method along with literature survey of the buccal mucoadhesive.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mukesh Sharma F.R. Sheeba Rajkumar Prasad Yadav Akshay Kumar Patel Yeshavantha Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 57 64 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.938 An Overview Of Phytochemical Identification Of Secondary Metabolites Ofmedicinal Plant Dactylorhiza Hatagirea <p>Plants are a valuable source of new natural products. Despite the availability of different approaches for the discovery of therapeutically, natural products still remain as one of the best reservoirs of new structural types. The standardized extracts of plants, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug discoveries because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs.HPLC is a versatile, robust, and widely used technique for the isolation of natural products, HPLC is a chromatographic technique that can separate a mixture of compounds and is used in phytochemical and analytical chemistry to identify, quantify and purify the individual components of the mixture. Currently, this technique is gaining popularity among various analytical techniques as the main choice for fingerprinting study for the quality control of herbal plants. Natural products are frequently isolated following the evaluation of a relatively crude extract in a biological assay in order to fully characterize its properties.&nbsp;Early studies showed that <em>Dactylorhizahatagirea</em> root are rich source of phytochemicals including flavonoids, phenolics, alkaloids. Therefore this study was conducted with the aim to investigate phytoconstituents present in <em>Dactylorhizahatagirea</em> root and assessment of their antioxidant characteristics.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shivani vishwakarma Dr. Sarita Karole ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 65 69 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.937 Dendrimers: Potential Drug Carrier For Novel Drug Delivery System <p>Dendrimers are new effectiveness of polymeric substances. They are relatively branched, monodisperse macromolecules. Structural Advantages permit dendrimers to play a critical function inside the fields of nanotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medicinal chemistry. As a result in their precise behavior dendrimers are suitable for a wide variety of biomedical and commercial packages. The paper gives a quick evaluation of dendrimers’ physicochemical properties and their possible use in various regions of research, generation, and treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Inder Kumar Sunny Dhiman Priyankul Palia Pankaj Kumar Nishant Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 70 79 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.945 The Role of Matrix Tablet in Oral Drug Delivery System <p>Matrix tablet is an important tool for controlled and sustained release dosage forms. The important route of drug administered by oral route. The oral dosage forms developed and improvedthe patient compliance. The oral controlled release system has been developed by change to formulation scientist, due to the inability to restrain and localized of a system at target area of the gastrointestinal tract. The hydrophilic polymers are becomes product of choice for important ingredients formulation of sustained release dosage forms.The benefit of sustained release dosage forms are compared to the conventional dosage forms and uniform therapeutic effects and drug plasma concentration. The matrices used of various class of hydrophilic, hydrophobic, mineral or biodegradabletypes of polymers and their degradation product have been focused. The drug have less half-life and eliminated from the body with in short period of time. The formulation of drug matrix types have been avoided by difficult sustained release drug delivery system. The mechanism of matrix tablets include the both dissolution and diffusion controlled. It produce the therapeutic efficacy. The goal of this review article is to discuss the release mechanism of the drug dosage form of various polymers and a matrix system used in preparation of matrix tablets.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rajkumar Prasad Yadav F. R. Sheeba Mukesh Sharma Bhargav A Yaswanth Kumar Akshay Kumar Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 9 2 80 86 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.930 Pharmacotherapeutics In Prosthodontics – An Overview <p>Pharmacology is the science of drugs. Drug is the single active chemical entity present in a medicine that is used for diagnosis, prevention, treatment of a disease. Pharmacology deals with interaction of exogenously administered chemical molecules (drugs) with living systems. The two main aspects of concern are the effects of drugs on biological systems and the effect of biological systems on efficacy and metabolism of drugs. Drugs play an important role in improving the response of the patient in both pre-treatment and post-treatment phases. Drugs in dentistry act as a primary treatment modality as well as facilitator of dental procedures. With phenomenal growth of information on the mechanism of action and clinical application of drugs as well as rapid introduction of new drugs, pharmacology has become increasingly important to all dentists. Prosthodontics is that specialty of dentistry which deals with patients of all ages, hence making it more important to know about the local and systemic effects of drugs and their side effects.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Gaurav Pal Singh Dr. Vishnu Kumar Soni Dr Teena Dr Saroj Nehra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 9 2 87 89 10.22270/ajprd.v9i2.906