Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2023-04-30T08:21:51+0530 Prof. (Dr.) M. P. Khinchi Open Journal Systems <div class="aboutushome" align="justify"><strong>Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (AJPRD)</strong>&nbsp;is a new online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and Full text. The journal is devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and health the health care professionals. It will also provide an international plate form for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance.</div> <div class="aboutushome">&nbsp;</div> Frequency analysis of subgroup blood typing and Cis-AB type 2023-04-15T07:33:09+0530 Youngdu Baek Cheolin Park <p>The purpose of this study is to prevent side effects of transfusion by analyzing the frequency of subtype blood types in blood type tests. Of the 19,800 cases, 128 (0.59%) cases were classified as subtypes. The distribution of subtype detection in K University Hospital was classified as Cis-AB (39 cases, 30.5%), A₂ (25 cases, 21.6%), A₂B (24 cases, 20.7%), A₁B (13 cases, 11.2%), A₃ (11 cases, 9.5 cases) %), B₃(9 cases, 7.8%), Ag(3 cases, 2.6%), Ax(1 case, 0.95%), Ay(1 case, 0.9%), Bx(1 case, 0.9%), Bel(1 case, 0.9%). Am, Az, and Bm were not detected at all. These subtype blood types are caused by quantitative and qualitative variants of antigenicity on the surface of red blood cells. Finally, the examiner should select blood that matches the patient's blood type and select blood that is not abnormal in the examination and transfuse it to prevent side effects of transfusion in advance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-14T22:19:05+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Content from Orange Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Based on Temperature and Storage Time 2023-04-15T07:33:09+0530 Mega Yulia Miftahur Rahmi Hilmarni Hilmarni <p>The province of West Sumatera in Indonesia prioritizes three types of fruit: orange, mangosteen, and banana in its production every year.&nbsp; Orange fruit be one of the people favorite fruits because rich in vitamin C, good taste and affordable prices. There are various ways of storing orange fruit, some are stored in the refrigerator and some in room temperature, eaten directly or stored for several days. Based on that reasons research on vitamin C content in orange fruit based on temperature and storage time has been conducted. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of temperature (refrigeration temperature/8<sup>o</sup>C and room temperature/30<sup>o</sup>C) and storage time (1, 3 and 7 days) on vitamin C content in orange fruit.&nbsp; The orange fruit were squeezed, filtered and diluted 100 times.&nbsp; All prepared solution of orange fruit has been measured with uv-visible spectrophotometer at wavelength of maximum absorbance264 nm. The results revealed that is a decreased vitamin C content in orange fruit based on temperature and storage time.&nbsp; Where orange fruit are stored at room temperature decreased faster more than orange fruit that stored in refrigeration temperature and orange fruit with storage time 7 days have decreased more than orange fruit that stored for 3 days or 1 day. In conclusion is vitamin C content decreases accelerate with higher storage temperature and longer storage time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-14T22:20:08+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Study of Knowledge Level with HIV/AIDS Transmission Prevention Behavior in Junior High School Adolescents in 2022 2023-04-15T12:02:16+0530 Reni Chairani Alifia Nurul Izzah <p>The problem of HIV/AIDS is still a global health problem, including in Indonesia, which is a country with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Adolescents are one of the groups at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. The provinces of West Java and DKI Jakarta were provinces that contributed the most cases of HIV/AIDS in recent years. It is necessary to study the level of knowledge and behavior of junior high school youth groups in Depok and Jakarta regarding the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission. The comparative study method with a cross sectional approach is the research design carried out in this study. by comparing two different groups. The characteristics of the 2 different groups of respondents in this study consisting of age, gender and parental education are the same. The level of knowledge of the respondents in this study had a low level of knowledge equality. The low level of knowledge among junior high school adolescents in Jakarta dominates (64%) compared to junior high school adolescents in Depok (50%) as evidenced by high risk behavior more in junior high school adolescents in Jakarta. The results of the Chi-Square test show that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge and the behavior of preventing HIV/AIDS transmission, because the p value = 0.000 (p value 0.05. In order to increase knowledge about adolescent health, especially HIV/AIDS, which is one of the phenomena prioritized diseases in the world and in Indonesia Health education needs to be included in the education curriculum in schools so that adolescents have good health information and are expected to influence good behavior for adolescents in the future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T12:02:15+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical Study and Toxicity Tests of Disclosing Agent Aloe Vera Gel 2023-04-15T11:54:56+0530 Fahmi Said Ida Rahmawati Neny Setiawaty Ningsih <p>Disclosing agents function to visualize and identify dental plaque on the tooth surface, making it very useful for viewing transparent bacterial plaque for the purposes of oral hygiene instruction, evaluation and research. Aloe vera (Aloe vera) has a unique texture because it is in the form of a gel which has anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antibacterial and anticancer properties. Aloe vera can be developed as a disclosing agent. Clinical trials and toxicity tests can be the basis for the clinical use of aloe vera gel. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of aloe vera gel as a disclosing agent based on clinical trials and toxicity tests. The research method is by carrying out sample preparation, extraction, gel preparation, clinical trials on human test subjects, and toxicity tests with the BSLT method. Data were analyzed descriptively, linear regression. The test results showed that the average plaque score in formula I (thick gel) was 3.62, while the average plaque score in formula II (less viscous gel) was 2.58. This shows that the more viscous aloe vera gel formula is better than the less viscous aloe vera gel. Based on the test, it is known that the average LC50 value is 2596.88 µg/ml. According to the literature, if the LC50 value is above 1000 µg/ml then the sample does not have a toxic effect.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-14T22:28:58+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of cognitive stimulation based on puzzle games on learning achievement in school-aged stunted children 2023-04-15T07:33:09+0530 Nurjannah N Taamu T Dali D Dyah Noviawati Setya Arum <p><strong>Introduction;</strong> Stunting causes obstacles to physical development but also threatens cognitive development which has an impact on reducing children's productivity in adulthood. So efforts are needed to helpth ecognitive development of stunting children through educational games.</p> <p><strong>Objective;</strong> Effect of Puzzle Game-Based Cognitive Stimulation on Learning Achievement of Stunted Children of School Age.</p> <p><strong>Method;</strong> This type of pre-experimental research with a one group pre test-post test design. This study used measurements three times before the intervention and three times after the intervention. A sample of 36 people with the criteria of a stunted child based on BMI results according to measurements of height/age and weight/age.</p> <p><strong>Results;</strong> the average value of stunting children's learning achievement given cognitive stimulation based on a puzzle game is PreTest 1 = 70.36, Post Test 1 = 69.36; Pre Test 2 = 72.36, Post Test 2 = 69.36, and PreTest 3 = 74.63, Post Test 3 = 70.72. In the statistical test results with the paired T-Test, there is a statistically significant difference (p &lt;0.05) significant for all puzzle game interventions given to stunting children.</p> <p><strong>Suggestion;</strong> the need for cognitive stimulus-based learning methods through puzzle games, as a learning approach technique for elementary school-age children who are stunted.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-14T22:30:53+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Utilization of shell waste as an adsorbent to reduce Fe (Iron) Metal 2023-04-15T07:33:09+0530 Endang Uji Wahyuni Budi Pramono Syarifuddin S <p>Background: So far, clam and crab shells have only been used for handicrafts such as wall hangings, or for animal feed mixtures. Shellfish shell waste contains high calcium carbonate, which is 98%, which has the potential to be utilized. Based on the results of previous studies on clam shell powder, the results were quite good at absorbing heavy metals. This research exploits the potential of shellfish in another form, namely shell ash as an alternative adsorbent that is environmentally friendly, because shell ash consists of compounds namely 7.88% SiO2, 1.25% Al2O3, 0.03% Fe2O3, 66.70% CaO, and 22.28% MgO. Based on the chemical composition, the CaO content in the shell ash is quite high so that the shell ash has the potential as an adsorbent. Purpose: to determine the ability of clam shells as an Fe adsorbent. Method: This type of research is quasi-experimental in nature, which is a research method that uses a quantitative approach, carrying out three control activities, manipulating activities and observation. In this study the researchers treated water containing Fe using blood clam shells and green mussel shells, as adsorbents. Results: Based on these results it can be seen that there is a decrease in iron (Fe) content by using variations in the size of clam shell granules as an adsorbent. The smaller the size of the clam shell granules, the lower the iron (Fe) content in groundwater. The highest percentage of reduction in iron (Fe) content was in 0.8 mm shell granules with a reduction percentage of 89%. Based on the research results, the ability of hemp shells to reduce Fe levels was very good, from a Fe level of 3.656 mg/liter after being filtered with blood clam media it decreased to a level of 0.132 mg/liter. Almost seeding the gold standard (ferrolite) which can reduce up to 0.033 mg/liter. Meanwhile, green mussels can reduce up to 2.64 mg/l. Conclusion: the ability of blood clam shells to reduce Fe levels is very good, able to reduce 96.39% (effective), almost seeding the gold standard (Ferolite) which can reduce up to 99.10%. Meanwhile, green mussels were only able to reduce up to 27.79% (not effective).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-14T22:32:43+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Cough Syrup 2023-04-15T07:33:10+0530 Pratikeswar Panda Arpita Sahu <p>The most common problem suffered by individuals everywhere over many centuries is cough. Coughing is the protective mechanism of the body. Coughs are classified further accordingly which are depending upon factors such as signs and symptoms, duration, type, character, etc. Most commonly used, prepared and popular dosage form to cure cough and cold is syrup. The most preferred dosage form to cure cough is herbal syrup, which is used mostly due to its benefits over synthetic syrups. Medicinal plants are used as primary health care agents, mostly in Asian countries. Ingredients showing expectorant antitussive activity are used. Hereby cough and herbal treatments associated with cough are studied briefly. The herbal cough syrup is studied which is liquid dosage form, it is easy to administer than solid dosage form and is more effective and fast acting in order to cure cough. Method of preparation of cough syrups were discussed. The material and quantity used in preparation were listed. Here honey based three batches were performed having concentration such as 35%, 40%, 45% w/v. the quality of final syrup was evaluated for post formulation studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-14T22:34:19+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis and Anti-Microbial Activity of 3-Hydrazinyl-7- Ethylquinoxaline-2(1h)-Thiol Derivatives 2023-04-15T12:21:18+0530 Sangappa Teli Dharyappa Teli <p>There are various pharmaceutical applications for quinoxaline derivatives. Benzoheterocycles, 6-methylequinoxalin-2,3-diones, and 3-Hydrazinyle are quinoxaline derivatives. 7-Methoxyquinoxaline-2(1H)-thiol Derivatives TLC, Melting Point, FT-IR, and 1HNMR are used to describe quinoxaline compounds such as SG-IA, SG-IB, SG-IC, SG-ID, SG-IE, and SG-IF. Biological activity data showed that SG-IC and SG-IB were moderately active, whereas SG-IA, SG-ID, SG-IE, and SG-IF had average activity when compared to the standard. The test compounds were discovered to be more sensitive to Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T12:21:18+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation Development And In Vitro- Assesment Of Herbal Anti-Bacterial Cream 2023-04-15T07:33:10+0530 Ratsongja Tokbi Girish Kumar Vyas Hariom Sharma Anil Sharma Manmohan Sharma <p><strong>Objectives of the study: </strong>To evaluate various formulation factors and the topical cream formulation of Cassia Siamea flower extract for antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening and characterization of the topical formulation (cream) made from the alcoholic extract are done after the extraction of Cassia Siamea.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>A suitable procedure was used to gather and extract the plants. The yield of the extract was estimated after drying. The broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC. This made it easier to determine the formulation's yield quantity. This yield was used to create cream, after which evaluations were conducted to test the product's quality.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussions: </strong>Began with the extraction and was followed by confirmation of the phytochemical evaluation. According to the confirmatory study, the ethanolic extract was devoid of saponins and glycosides. Tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, and alkaloids were also discovered, but not these carbohydrates. In MIC testing, the Cassia Siamea flower extract shown good activity and effectively inhibited the growth of Propionibacterium acnes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The designed composition produced a very smooth cream. In accordance with I. P., evaluations were also discovered to be within the range of conventional formulas. Evaluations revealed that the overall formulation had good activity against microorganisms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study reveals that a range of phytochemicals are present in Cassia siamea flowers as an active component, producing positive findings against antibacterial activity and showing great promise as an antibacterial agent. This study also comes to the conclusion that the extraction of Cassia Siamea flowers is essential for the development of better, safer, and more affordable drugs to treat different bacterial illnesses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T07:17:30+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Nicorandil Floating Tablets Using Natural Polymers 2023-04-23T07:56:07+0530 Anoop Kumar Srivastava Dharmedra Singh Rajput Naveen gupta Neeraj K Sharma <p>The present work described the pre-formulation and formulation development that led to the production of Nicorandil (NDL) floating tablets by direct compression of a homogeneous powder blend/ granules. In order to achieve the drug (NDL) release up to 24 hrs, rafting approach was selected. Studies have been carried out on rafting method by the use of natural polymers (sodium alginate, xanthan gum and guar gum) alone and their combination to get maximum rafting properties with superior drug release retarding activity. The results obtained in the rafting approach indicated that the polymer combination showed significant influence on rafting properties with maximum drug release retarding ability than individual polymers. In addition, the polymer combination of xanthan gum and guar gum resulted with maximum drug release retarding ability with poor rafting properties, whereas, the polymer combination of sodium alginate and guar gum resulted with predictable release behaviour (i.e. slightly lower retarding ability than the combination of xanthan gum and guar gum) with maximum rafting properties.&nbsp; As such the floating tablets prepared with rafting approach were recommended for oral controlled delivery of NDL.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-23T07:56:07+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Novel Researched Herbal Sunscreen Cream SPF Determination by In-Vitro Model 2023-04-25T08:21:48+0530 Prateek Pandey Anil Sharma Hariom Sharma Girish Kumar Vyas Manmohan Sharma <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Researchers' interest in creating novel cosmetic formulations has increased due to consumer interest in herbal cosmetics and increased patent activity. The rights of indigenous traditional knowledge and benefit sharing are also safeguarded under IPR.</p> <p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To formulate and evaluate herbal sunscreen with determination of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and anti-oxidant activity. To compare Sun Protection Factor of developed formulation with marketed formulation.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong> The formulation was developed according to the prepared formula. And multiple tests were done for evaluation i.e., physical observation, spreadability, extrudability, occlusion study, stability study and SPF determination. All the evaluations were found satisfactory. Characterisation of SPF was calculated according to the and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (LABMAN Scientific instruments Pvt. Ltd.).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong>The synergistic activity of all herbal compounds utilized in herbal sunscreen formulations, such as <em>Cucumis sativus</em>, <em>Solanum Lycopersicon</em>, and <em>Aloe barbadensis</em> Efficacy of photoprotection found in following order Marketed formulation &gt; F3 &gt; F2 &gt; F1. For prepared formulation F3 provided better results in comparison to Formulation1 and Formulation 2. Formulation 3 was compared with marketed preparation and it showed good SPF value nearer to market preparation. Overall results were satisfactory. These results reveal that the prepared F3 herbal sunscreen have good SPF and good sun protection activity.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Formulation 3, which consists of three formulations, has been found to be effective as sunscreen in every way. Since few people use sunscreen, there is a need to raise public knowledge of the risks associated with sun exposure as well as the advantages of using sun protection products on a regular basis to lessen these effects. This kind of research will be useful in offering consumers with an all-inclusive solution or product that will protect them from the damaging effects of sunlight.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-25T08:21:48+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Novel Research on Anti- Diabetic Syrup Using Plants Seeds Abelmoschus Esculents and Punica Granatum 2023-04-25T08:10:34+0530 Chitransh Saxena Manmohan Sharma Hariom Sharma Anil Sharma Girish Vyas <p><em>Abelmoschus Esculents</em> plant is a vegetable and itsgeneral name is lady finger is most of the famous vegetable in India and other countries because of all the medical advantages it has. And <em>Punica Granatum </em>is also known as pomegranate this name is commonly used in India.This is a fruit also large scale of production in country. They both have (lady finger and Pomegranate) an excellent source of Nutrition and control the human blood sugar level. The focus of this review is on Abelmoschus esculents (okra) and pomegranates as anti-oxidants, agents for reducing tiredness, and most importantly, diabetes therapeutics. Pomegranate and lady finger (also known as okra) fibres and minerals have also long been recognised as sources of energy and biotherapeutics from which essential medications can be manufactured. The analysis examines how well okra and pomegranates can transform the majority of medications used to treat various disorders. Additionally, it expresses hope that pomegranate and okra would succeed in the various stages of clinical testing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-25T08:10:34+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Current Research on H3 and H4 Receptors 2023-04-19T22:17:11+0530 Vicky Chaurasiya Vivek Bhoir Soniya Bhundere Yashwant Chauhan Kusum Chavan Bairagi Shriram Takarkhede Smita <p>This review article provides an overview of the structure, location, and functional uses of H3 and H4 histamine receptors. It examines the current research on the topic, including the structure of the receptors, their location in the body, and their role in the body's response to histamine. It also looks at potential, therapeutic applications of these receptors and their potential to be used as drug targets. The article concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for research on these receptors. The identification of Histamine (H3) &amp; (H4) receptors .Some years ago relined interest&nbsp; in&nbsp; histamine&nbsp; research&nbsp; and&nbsp; exposed&nbsp; attracting&nbsp; perspectives&nbsp; for the potential therapeutic exploitation &amp;&nbsp; these new drug&nbsp; targets. While the H3 receptors is mainly localized in the CNS, the of the brain and&nbsp; the morphologic characterization histamine producing&nbsp; neurons proved the existence of&nbsp; histaminergic system in the mammalian brain, It is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cell, indicating their function in neurotransmission and immunomodulation, respectively. Although structural&nbsp; similarities between H3 and H4 &amp; Species difference in their pharmacological profiles are causes of limitation in their evaluation&nbsp; &amp; their biological profile the development&nbsp; of selective&nbsp; ligands for there receptors. The H3 and H4 is recognised drug target for neuronal diseases, such as Cognitive Disorder, Neuropathic pain and Sleep Wake Disorder considering the topicality &amp; this area of research. This review focuses on the pharmacology of selected promising indication and the rationalefor the application of H3and H4 ligands.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T07:23:50+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review article on hemodialysis and its complications 2023-04-15T07:33:10+0530 Manav Singh S.P. Srinivas Nayak Preeti Tiwari Sahil Shaikh Vaidik Gautam Prajwal Waman Ghatol <p>The ability to evaluate outcomes among patients with ESRD increased dramatically after 1988, when the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) was established to record and issue reports that would track mortality and morbidity and determine factors affecting clinical outcomes. Hemodialysis is now substantially safer than it was initially, and deaths directly related to the dialysis procedure are rare. Improved dialysate delivery systems, more reliable monitoring devices, and automated safety mechanisms have reduced the risk of complications. Other technical improvements include the standard use of the more physiologic bicarbonate-based dialysate, better water-quality standards, volumetric ultrafiltration controls, and computer-controlled sodium and potassium modeling. Several in-line devices now allow dynamic monitoring of the rate of blood flow through the vascular access, changes in the hematocrit, and changes in the electrical conductivity of the dialysate, but the complication related to dialysis has not decreased as a result complication related to dialysis is persistent.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T07:25:11+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metabolic Complications Associated With Total Parenteral Nutrition 2023-04-15T07:33:10+0530 Sharaf Shibila Chandran Rinoy Ashraf Shabana <p>Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a very important means of providing nutrients to patients who have no access to receiving nutrients by enteral route. It consists of all the essential components like lipids, protein, dextrose, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. The concentration of all these components can be adjusted according to the requirement of the patients. They are also available as fixed solutions. Administration of TPN requires careful monitoring as small change in concentration of nutrients in the solution may cause serious, life-threatening complications. Metabolic complications like electrolyte abnormalities, refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and many hepatobiliary dysfunctions like steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic dysfunction and gallbladder dysfunction are all associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T07:26:11+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Recent Developments in Toxicology Study 2023-04-15T07:33:10+0530 Soumya Kanti Jana Lopamudra Chakravarty <p><strong>The</strong> story of toxicology began in the primitive age where our ancestors were fighting the battle of survival, they recognized the poisonous plants and extracted the poison which they used to survive. That was just the beginning and by the 1500BC people already marked opium, hemlock and some certain metals as the dangerous poisonous substances. Toxicology was at first developed as the study of poisons but through the development it is now the study of adverse effect of chemical agents on living organism. The key of any development is to overcome the setbacks and the toxicological development was no exception. Various setbacks appeared through the ages like sulfanilamide catastrophe, irrational use of animals in toxicity study, cross species differences, financial exposures etc. All of these setbacks pushed the human beings to the urge of developing new methodology, technology for the toxicology study and as results various in-vitro study methods, toxicogenomics, toxicoproteomics study emerged.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-15T07:10:27+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review on SGLT2 Inhibitors 2023-04-30T08:21:51+0530 Namrata Kale Pravin Dighe <p>The pharmaceutical industry employs a variety of analytical techniques to test the quality, concentration, and composition of medicines in biological fluids. This review work to provide the most existing analytical methods for the analysis of SGLT2 inhibitors (Empagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin) in active pharmaceutical ingredients, biological fluids &amp; pharmaceutical dosage forms. SGLT2 inhibitors are gliflozin derivatives, used generally in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These inhibitors have pharmacological action in the kidneys, where they filter and reabsorb glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule and help to contribute to glucose homeostasis. The analytical techniques such as HPLC, LC-MS/MS, Mass spectrometry, UV-spectroscopy, and HPTLC on selected SGLT2 inhibitors were reviewed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-30T08:21:51+0530 ##submission.copyrightStatement##