Pallavi S Mhaske, Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale, Vijaya B Mehetre, Kanchan P Pandhare, Vaishnavi U Petkar, Kailash R. Biyani

  • Pallavi S Mhaske Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201
  • Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201
  • Vijaya B Mehetre Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201
  • Kanchan P Pandhare Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201
  • Vaishnavi U Petkar Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201
  • Kailash R Biyani Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD), or simply Parkinson’s, is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. Parkinson's sickness (PD) has a place with a gathering of conditions called motor system issues, which cause unintended or wild developments of the body. The precise cause of PD is unknown, but some cases are hereditary while others are thought to occur from a combination of genetics and environmental factors that trigger the disease.  In PD, brain cells become damaged or die in the part of the brain that produces dopamine--a chemical needed to produce smooth, purposeful movement.


Parkinson's ailment is a dynamic sensory system issue that influences development. Indications start progressively, in some cases beginning with a scarcely observable quake in only one hand. Quakes are normal, however the confusion additionally ordinarily causes solidness or easing back of development.In this review article we include Introduction ,How  to Parkinson’s disease occurs , mechanism , pathophysiology , Diagnosis , treatment , medication , causes , symptoms  of Parkinson’s disease .


                                                                                                                                                         


 

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease (PD), Motar system, pathophysiology , diagnosis , treatment .

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Pallavi S Mhaske, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Vijaya B Mehetre, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Kanchan P Pandhare, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Vaishnavi U Petkar, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Kailash R Biyani, Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

Anuradha College of Pharmacy, chikhli, Dist –Buldana (MS) India 443201

References

1. Koller WC, Busenbark KL. Essential tremor. In: Watts RL, Koller WC, eds. Movement disorders New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997:365-85.
2. Ben-Shlomo Y. The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. In: Quinn NP, ed. Parkinsonism London: Bailliere-Tindall, 1997:55-68.
3. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Parkinson's disease: diagnosis and management in primary and secondary care London: NICE, 2006. (http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG35)
4. Bennett DA, Beckett LA, Murray AM, Shannon KM, Goetz CG, Pilgrim DM, et al. Prevalence of parkinsonian signs and associated mortality in a community population of older people. N Engl J Med 1996; 334:71-6.
5. Gibb WRG, Lees AJ. The relevance of the Lewy body to the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. J NeurolNeurosurg Psychiatry 1988; 51:745-52.
6. Meara J, Bhowmick B, Hobson P. Accuracy of diagnosis in patients with presumed Parkinson's disease. Age Ageing 1999; 28:99-102.
7. Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Kilford L, Lees AJ. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992; 55:181-4.
8. Jankovic J, Rajput A, McDermott M, Perl D, Parkinson Study Group. The evolution of diagsis in early Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2000; 57:369-72
9. Twelves, D., Perkins, K. S. &Counsell, C. Systematic review of incidence studies of Parkinson's disease. Mov. Disord.2003; 18:19–31.
10. Savica, R., Grossardt, B. R., Bower, J. H., Ahlskog, J. E. & Rocca, W. A. Incidence and pathology of synucleinopathies and tauopathies related to parkinsonism. JAMA Neurol.2013; 70:859-866.
11. Van Den Eeden, S. K. et al. Incidence of Parkinson's disease: variation by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2003; 157:1015:1022.
12. Pringsheim, T., Jette, N., Frolkis, A. &Steeves, T. D. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mov. Disord.2014; 29; 1583:1590.
13. Pinter, B. et al. Mortality in Parkinson's disease: a 38-year follow-up study. Mov. Disord.2015; 30:266–269.
14. Kasper DL, et al., eds. Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed May.2015; 292018.
15. Parkinson's disease: Hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Parkinsons-Disease-Hope-Through-Research. Accessed May. 29, 2018.
16. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/parkinsons-disease/causes/
17. Paisan-Ruiz, C., Jain, S., Evans, E. W., Gilks, W. P., Simon, J., van der Brug, M., et al. Cloning of the gene containing mutations that cause PARK8-linked Parkinson’s disease. Neuron.2004; 44:595–600. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2004.10.02
18. Park, G., Tan, J., Garcia, G., Kang, Y., Salvesen, G., and Zhang, Z. Regulation of histone acetylation by autophagy in parkinson disease. J. Biol. Chem. 2016; 291:531–3540. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.675488
19. Parkinson, J. An essay on the shaking palsy. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.2017 14, 223–236. doi: 10.1176/jnp.14.2.223
20. Pastor, P., Ezquerra, M., Munoz, E., Martí, M. J., Blesa, R., Tolosa, E., et al. Significant association between the tau gene A0/A0 genotype, and Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol. 2000; 47:242–245. doi: 10.1002/1531-8249(200002)47:2<242::AID-ANA16>3.0.CO.
21. Pihlstrom, L., Berge, V., Rengmark, A., and Toft, M. (2015). Parkinson’s disease correlates with promoter methylation in the alpha-synuclein gene. Mov. Disord. J. Mov. Disord. Soc.2015; 30:577–580. doi: 10.1002/mds.26073
22. Politis, M., Wu, K., Molloy, S., Bain, P. G., Chaudhuri, K. R., and Piccini, P. Parkinson’s disease symptoms: the patient’s perspective. Mov. Disord. Off. J. Mov. Disord. Soc. 2010; 25:1646–1651. doi: 10.1002/mds.23135
23. Polymeropoulos, M. H., Lavedan, C., Leroy, E., Ide, S. E., Dehejia, A., Dutra, A., et al. Mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson’s disease. Science.1997; 276:2045–2047. doi: 10.1126/science.276.5321.2045
24. Pont-Sunyer, C., Tolosa, E., Caspell-Garcia, C., Coffey, C., Alcalay, R. N., Chan, P., et al. The prodromal phase of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated Parkinson disease: clinical and imaging Studies. Mov. Disord.2017; 32:726–738. doi: 10.1002/mds.2696
25. Postuma, R. B., and Berg, D. Advances in markers of prodromal Parkinson disease. Nat. Rev. Neurol. 2016; 12:622–634. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016;152
26. Postuma, R. B., Gagnon, J.-F., Pelletier, A., and Montplaisir, J. Y. (2017). Insomnia and somnolence in idiopathic RBD: a prospective cohort study. NPJ Park. Dis. 3:9. doi: 10.1038/s41531-017-0011-7
27. Proukakis, C., Dudzik, C. G., Brier, T., MacKay, D. S., Cooper, J. M., Millhauser, G. L., et al. A novel α-synuclein missense mutation in Parkinson disease. Neurology.2013; 80:1062–1064. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828727ba
28. Rodríguez-Nogales, C., Garbayo, E., Carmona-Abellán, M. M., Luquin, M. R., and Blanco-Prieto, M. J. Brain aging and Parkinson’s disease: new therapeutic approaches using drug delivery systems. Maturitas 2016; 84:25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.11.009
29. Rodriguez-Oroz, M. C., Obeso, J. A., Lang, A. E., Houeto, J. L., Pollak, P., Rehncrona, S., et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: a multicentre study with 4 years follow-up. Brain.2005; 128: 2240–2249. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh571
30. Rosin B, Slovik M, Mitelman R, Rivlin-Etzion M, Haber S N, Israel Z, et al. Closed-loop deep brain stimulation is superior in ameliorating Parkinsonism. Neuron 2011; 72:370-384.
31. Sakakibara, R., Tateno, F., Kishi, M., Tsuyusaki, Y., Terada, H., and Inaoka, T.MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in pre-motor Parkinson’s disease: a review. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 2014; 20:267-273. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.11.001
32. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323440#age-and-sex
33. https://g.co/kgs/sQ7oNL
Statistics
33 Views | 19 Downloads
How to Cite
Mhaske, P., Unhale, S., Mehetre, V., Pandhare, K., Petkar, V., & Biyani, K. (2020). Pallavi S Mhaske, Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale, Vijaya B Mehetre, Kanchan P Pandhare, Vaishnavi U Petkar, Kailash R. Biyani. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 8(5), 109-113. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22270/ajprd.v8i5.833