Cellulose Nanocrystals: A Versatile Nanoplatform
The developing natural and ecological awareness has driven endeavors for advancement of new inventive products for different end-use applications. Nanotechnology executes a significant contribution in the improvement of such product. Cellulose nanocrystals are one of a kind nanomaterial obtained from the most copius and practically boundless natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have obtained remarkable interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals basically derived from naturally existing cellulose fibres, are biodegradable and inexhaustible in nature and consequently they fill in as an eco-friendly material for most applications. Considering the ever-expanding interdisciplinary research being done on cellulose nanocrystals, this review means to collate the information accessible about the preparation technique, modification and application of cellulose nanocrystals. Cellulose nanocrystals can be sourced from biomass, plants, or microbes, depending on genuinely basic, versatile, and productive isolation methodology. Mechanical, synthetic, and enzymatic treatments, or a blend of these, can be utilized to separate nanocellulose from natural sources. Nanocrystalline cellulose surface modification strategies are commonly used to introduce either charged or hydrophobic moieties, and comprises amidation, esterification, etherification, silylation, polymerization, urethanization, sulfonation, and phosphorylation. This nanomaterial is a promising contender for applications in fields, for example, biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films and so forth.
2. Braiki S A, Sivaloganathan S. Composites enhanced with nanocrystalline cellulose: A Comparative Study. International Journal for Research in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 2018; 4(5):1-10
3. Deshmukh A, Tiwari K, Mahajan V. Solubility enhancement technique for poorly water-soluble drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology.2017; 10(3):3701- 3708
4. George J, Sabapathi S N. Cellulose Nanocrystal: Synthesis, Functional, Properties and Application. Nanotechnology, Science and Application. 2015; 8:45-54
5. Habibi Y, Lucia L A, Rojas O J. Cellulose Nanocrystal: Chemistry, Self-Assembly and Applications. Chemical Review. 2010; 110(6): 3479-3500.
6. Jackson J K, Letchford K, Wasserman B Z, Ye L, Hamad W Y, Burt H M. The use of nanocrystalline cellulose for the binding and controlled release of drugs. International Journal of Nanomedicine.2011; 6:321- 330.
7. Jasmani L, Thielemans W. Preparation of nanocellulose and its potential application. Forest Research. 2018; 7(3):1-8.
8. Prabu L S. Nanocellulose Bio-Nanomaterial: A Review. Bioequivalence and Bioavailability International Journal.2017; 1(1).
9. Saina J, Kumar S. Development of nanocrystal formulation with improved dissolution. Journal of drug delivery and therapeutics. 2018; 8(5): 118-129.
10. Shafizah S, Izwan A R S, Fatirah F, Hasraf M N N (2018). Review on cellulose nanocrystal as reinforced agent on electrospun nanofibers: Mechanical and Thermal properties. Material Science and Engineering Conference series. 2018; 440(1):012011.
11. Sinha A, Martin E M, Lim K, Carrier D J, Han H, Zharov V P, Kim J (2015). Cellulose nanocrystal as advance green material for biological and biomedical engineering. Journal of Biosystem engineering. 2015; 40(4)373-393.
12. Trache D, Hussin M H, Mohammed Hafiz M K, Thakur V K, Recent progress in cellulose nanocrystal: sources and production. Nanoscale.2017; 9(5):1763-1786.
13. Xie H, Du H, Yang X, Si C (2018). Recent Strategies in Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibrils Derived from Raw cellulose material. International Journal of Polymer Science. 2018; 2018(5):1-25.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).