A Review on Macroscopy, Microscopy and Pharmacological Activity of Cayratiatrifolia Linn.
Cayratiatrifolia (Linn.)Domin is a perennial climber, family Vitaceae, found in India, Asia and Australia. The plant is found in hilly regions as well as the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam. It is commonly known as fox grape in English, Amalbel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. The plant has trifoliated leaves with (2-3cm) long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in colour. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, spherical, about 1 cm in diameter of dark purple or black colour.The stem composed of cork cells on the outer side and composed of small size sclerenchymatous cells. The cortex is wide and has parenchymatous cells. Numbers of sclereids are widely distributed in the cortex region. Cortex also shows the presence of calcium oxalate crystals.The leaf surface shows the stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer (Figure2A). Epidermal cells are rectangular, thin and straight walled cells. Stomata are anisocytic or unequal celled stomata, three subsidiary cells, one is smaller than other two. Leaf surface analysis also shows the presence of veins, vein islet and vein termination (Figure2B). Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bundles (xylem and phloem).The leaf powder is pale green in color, with a characteristic odour and bitter taste.This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Whole plant of Cayratiatrifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, ﬂavonoids, tannins. Plant shows the antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activity.
2. Sesagirriravu R. Flora of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pardesh. J Ind Bot Soc India 1986; 147.
3. Nazimuddin S, Qaiser M. Flora of Pakistan. Available from: http://www.efolra.org. 17.
4. Chen Z, Ren H, Wen J. Vitaceae, Flora of china. (Beijling) and Missouri Bot. Garden (USA): Sci Press; 2010; 12:33,115,173.
5. Drury H. Handbook of Indian ﬂora: Being a guide to all ﬂowering plants. Trivandrum, India: Travancore Sircar Press 1864; 1:175.
6. Chaudhary AB. Forest Plants of Eastern India. New Delhi, India: Ashish Publishing House; 1993:180.
7. Gupta AK, Sharma M. Review on Indian Medical Plants. New Delhi, India: ICMR; 2007; 5:879-82.
8. Purushothama S, Viswanath S, Kunhikannan C. Economic valuation of extractive conservation in a tropical deciduous forest in Madhya Pardesh, India. J Trop Eco 2001; 41:61-72.
9. Bradacs G. Ethanobotanical survey and Biological screening of medical plants from Vanutau Ph.D. dissertation. Germany: University of Regensburg; 2008:171.
10. Garden CA, Bennet HW. The Toxic Plant of Western Australian Path.West Aust News Paper; 1956.
11. Vardana R. Direct use of medical plant and their identiﬁcation. New Delhi, India: SARUP and Sons; 2008; 1:177.
12. Pulliah T. Encyclopedia of World Medical Plants. India: Regency; 2006; 1:492.
13. Tutul E, Uddin MD. Z, Angiospermic ﬂora of Ructia Sal Forest (Bangladesh).Bangladesh J Plant Taxon.2010; 17:33-45.
14. Manjuhatta BK, Krishna V, Pullaiah T. Flora of Davanagree district, Karnatka, India: Regency; 2004:94
15. Soejima A, Wen J. Phylogenetic analysis of Grape Family (Vitaceae) based on three chloroplast markers. Am J Bot 2005; 93:278.
16. Lee CC, Houghton P. Cytotoxicity of plants from Malaysia and Thailand used traditionally to treate Cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 237-43.
17. Deﬂilipps AR, Maina LS. The Palauan and Yap Medical Plant Studies of Masayoshoiokabe. Atoll Res Bull 1988:17.
18. Kumar D, Gupta J, Kumar S, Arya R, Kumar T, Gupta A. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratiatrifolia (Linn.) leaf. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(1):6-10.
19. Munchen, Staatssamml. Protabase Record Display 1953; 1:352.
20. Grubben GJ, Denton OA.Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Vol. 2: Vegetables. Backhuys. 2004:166.
21. Throton WBC. Krakatau. Harvard University Press.1997:121, 155.
22. Arora J, Roat C, Goyal S, Ramawat KG. High Stilbenes accumulation in root culture of Cayratiatrifolia (L.)Domin grown in shake ﬂ ask. ActaPhysiol Plant 2009; 31:1307-11.
23. Gaur RD, Sharma J. Plants Used in Traditional Healthcare of live stock by Gujjar community of Sub Himalayan tracts, Uttarakhand, India. IJNPR 2010; 2:243-8.
24. Patil DA, Pawar S. Ethnobotany of Jalgaon District, Maharashtra. New Delhi, India: Daya Publishing House; 2006:100,486,513,516,549.
25. Choudhary K, Singh M. Ethnobotanical Survey of Rajasthan-An Update. Am Euras J Bot 2008; 1:38-45.
26. Swarnkar S, Katewa SS. Ethanobotanical observation on tuberous plants from tribal areas of Rajasthan (India). Ethanobotanical leaﬂets 2008:647,660.
27. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants.An illustrated of Dictionary. Springer: Verlag, Berlin; 2007:132.
28. Patil VM. Ethnobotany of Nasik District, Maharashtra. Delhi, India: Daya Publishing House; 2006:103,119,340,386,413.
29. Azam MN, Hassan AI, Ismal M, Islam MN, Haque MZ, Jahan R, et al. An Ethnopharmacological survey of Daulatdiaghat area, Kushtia District (Bangladesh), used for treatment of “HARD To CURE” diseases. University of Ottawa, Canada: OGIRC/CICMR Second Joint Conference; 2010:43.
30. Jain A, Katwal SS. Some therapeutic Uses of Biodiversity among the tribals of Rajasthan. Indian J TraditKnowl 2008; 7:256-62.
31. Ayyanar M, Lgnacimuthu S. Plants used for non-medicinal purposes by the tribal people in Kalakad, Mundan-Thurai Tiger Reserve Southern India. Indian J TraditKnowl 2010; 9:515-8.
32. Kumar D, Kumar S, Gupta J, Arya R, Gupta A. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratiatrifolia Linn.(Vitaceae).Phcog Rev 2011; 5:184-8.
33. Yusuf MI, Wahyuni, Susanty S, Ruslan, Fawwaz M. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Galing Stem Extract (CayratiatrifoliaDomin). Pharmacog J. 2018; 10(4):686-9.
34. Feriadi Eva, Wahyuni, Yusuf Muhammad I. Antimitotic Activity of Cayratiatrifolia Ethanol Extract on Zygote Cells of Tripneustesgratilla. Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research. April 2018:69-75.
35. Santoso D, Sudiana I K, Rahayu A S, and Yunus M. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate fraction of galing plant extract (Cayratiatrifolia) on male wistar rats induced by carrageenan. 2019 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1146 012021. 1-5.
36. Gupta Jyoti, Kumar Dinesh, Gupta Ankit. Evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of Cayratiatrifolia in experimental animals. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012; 99-102.
37. Gupta Ankit, BhardwajAbhishek, guptaJyoti, BagchiAnindya. Antimplantation activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of Cayratiatrifolia Linn. on female Albino rat. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012) S197-S199.
38. Cruz Charlie P, Alcantara Jerold C, Cruz Jonas P. Antibacterial Property of Cayratiatrifolia L. as an Alternative Treatment for Boils, RJSITM: 2014;3(12):9-12.
39. Docherty JJ, Fu MM, Hah JM, Sweet TJ, Faith SA, Booth T. Effect of resveratrol on herpes simplex virus vaginal infection in the mouse. Antiviral Res 2005; 67:15562.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
AUTHORS WHO PUBLISH WITH THIS JOURNAL AGREE TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).