Absence of Renal Protection of an Aqueous Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Cultivated in Costa Rica, Using a Model of Acute Renal Failure in Wistar Rats

  • Apú Leitón Navilla Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacodependence Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • Fallas Ramírez Jose Manuel Industrial Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Orozco Aguilar Josué Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacéuticas (INIFAR), Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Rodríguez Arrieta Jesús Alexander Centro de Investigación en Estructuras Microscópicas (CIEMic), Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Mora Román Juan José Industrial Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Abstract

  1. citratus, known as zacate de limón (lemongrass), is commonly used in Costa Rica for the treatment of "kidney diseases." Therefore, the activity as renal protector of an aqueous extract of this plant was evaluated after oral administration, in a model of acute kidney injury (AKI) in female Wistar rats. For this, an aqueous extract was characterized by thin layer chromatography and qualitative phytochemical tests. An AKI model induced by potassium chromate in female Wistar rats was carried out. The serum concentration of creatinine, sodium, potassium and glucose were determined, as well as the concentrations of creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose and proteins in urine, together with the urinary flow determination. A histopathological analysis of the subjects’ kidneys was performed, and the presence of kidney damage was identified. The characterization of the extract by thin layer chromatography, and ferric chloride, Shinoda and Wilson tests gave negative results for phenols, tannins and flavonoids. No positive changes were observed in renal function markers in urine. No histopathological evidence of nephroprotective activity of the aqueous extract of C. citratus was found. It is concluded that the aqueous extract of C. citratus obtained by infusion does not possess nephroprotective activity at a dose of 150 mg/kg evaluated by the AKI in female Wistar rats.

Keywords: Acute renal failure, potassium chromate, lemongrass, phytochemistry, nephroprotection, Wistar rats.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Apú Leitón Navilla, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacodependence Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica

Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacodependence Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica

Fallas Ramírez Jose Manuel, Industrial Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Industrial Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Orozco Aguilar Josué, Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacéuticas (INIFAR), Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacéuticas (INIFAR), Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Rodríguez Arrieta Jesús Alexander, Centro de Investigación en Estructuras Microscópicas (CIEMic), Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Centro de Investigación en Estructuras Microscópicas (CIEMic), Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Mora Román Juan José, Industrial Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Industrial Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

References

1. Monedero P, García-Fernández N, Pérez-Valdivieso J, Vives M, Lavilla J. Insuficiencia renal aguda. Rev Esp
Anestesiol Reanim, 2011; 58(6):365-374.
2. Mejía CH. Insuficiencia renal aguda. Colombia Médica, 2001; 32(2):83-85
3. Bellomo R, Kellum JA, Ronco C. Acute kidney injury, Lancet, 2012; 80(9843):756-766.
4. Chawla LS, Eggers PW, Star RA, Kimmel PL. Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease as Interconnected
Syndromes. N Engl J Med, 2014; 371(1):58-66
5. Cerdá J, Lameire N, Eggers P, Pannu N, Uchino S, Wang H et al. Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury. Clin J Am
Soc Nephrol, 2008; 3(3):881-886.
6. Ali T, Khan I, Simpson W, Prescott G, Townend J, Smith W et al. Incidence and Outcomes in Acute Kidney Injury:
A Comprehensive Population-Based Study. Clin J Soc Nephrol, 2007; 18(4):1292-1298.
7. Quesada Hernández A. Las plantas medicinales. Revista Biocenosis, 2008; 21(1-2):20-23.
8. Rodríguez Navas H. La utilidad de las plantas medicinales en Costa Rica. 2nd ed. Heredia: Editorial Universidad
Nacional; 2017. 433 p.
9. Ekpenyong CE, Akpan EE, Daniel NE. Phytochemical Constituents, Therapeutic Applications and Toxicological
Profile of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (DC) Leaf Extract. J Pharmacogn Phytochem, 2014; 3(1):133-141.
10. Ullah N, Khan MA, Khan T, Ahmad W. Cymbopogon citratus Protects against the Renal Injury Induced by Toxic
Doses of Aminoglycosides in Rabbits. Indian J Pharm Sci, 2013; 75(2):241-246.
11. Ademuyiwa AJ, Elliot SO, Olamide KY, Omoyemi AA, Funmi OS. Studies of the Nephroprotective and
Nephrotoxicity Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass) on Wistar Albino Rats. World J
Pharm Pharm Sci, 2016; 5(12):244-256.
12. Negrelle RRB, Gomes EC. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: chemical composition and biological activities. Rev
Bras Pl Med, 2007; 9(1):80-92.
13. Nambiar VS, Matela H. Potential Functions of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) in Health and Disease. I
nternational Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive, 2012; 3(5):1035-1043.
14. Shah G, Shri R, Panchal V, Sharma N, Singh B, Mann AS. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon
citratus, stapf (Lemon grass). J Adv Pharm Technol Res, 2011; 2(1):3-8.
15. Lawal OA, Ogundajo AL, Avoseh NO, Ogunwande IA. 2017. Cymbopogon citratus. In: Kuete V, editor. Medicinal
Spices and Vegetables from Africa. London: Academic Press; 2017. p. 397-423.
16. Ekpenyong C, Daniel N, Akpan E. Phytoconstituents and diuretic activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaf infusions in
humans. J Coastal Life Med, 2014; 2(9):704-713.
17. Patel AA, Amin AA, Patwari AH, Shah MB. Validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for
simultaneous determination of quercetin and gallic acid in Leea indica. Rev Bras Farmacogn, 2017; 27(1):50-53
18. Reich E, Blatter A. Herbal Drugs, Herbal Drug Preparations, and Herbal Medicinal Products. In: Sherma J, Fried B,
editors. Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography. 3rd Edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2003.
19. Medić-Šarić M, Jasprica I, Mornar A, Maleš Z. Application of TLC in the Isolation and Analysis of Flavonoids. In:
Waksmundzka-Hajnos M, Sherma J, Kowalska T, editors. Thin Layer Chromatography in Phytochemistry. Boca
Raton: CRC Press; 2008. 405-423.
20. Wilson CW. A Study of the Boric Acid Color Reaction of Flavone Derivates. J Am Chem Soc, 1939; 61(9):2303-
2306.
21. Vallejo E, Weng N. Evaluación de la actividad diurética y antimicrobiana de dos plantas usadas como diuréticos en
Costa Rica [thesis]. San José: Universidad de Costa Rica; 1996. 102 p.
22. Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo. Manual de Técnicas de Investigación.
Bogotá: CYTED; 1995. 105 p.
23. Ávila ML, Meléndez ME. El glutatión y las vitaminas C y E protegen en el daño renal agudo inducido por cromo en
la rata. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, 2009; 40(1):35-41.
24. Meléndez Camargo ME, Lozano Cortés M. Renal and hepatic interactions of acetaminophen and amikacin in the
infant rat. Proc West Pharmacol Soc, 1998; 41:61-63.
25. Neeley WE. Simple Automated Determination of Serum or Plasma Glucose by a Hexokinase/Glucose-6-
Phosphate Dehydrogenase Method. Clin Chem, 1972; 18(6):509-515.
26. Williams DC, Huff GF, Seitz WR. Glucose Oxidase Chemiluminescense Measurement of Glucose in Urine
Compared with the Hexokinase Method. Clin Chem, 1976; 22(3):372-374
27. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the
principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem, 1976; 72(1-2):248-254.
28. Gaviño de la Torre G, Juárez López C, Figueroa Tapia HH. 1987. Técnicas biológicas selectas de laboratorio y de
campo. México: Editorial Limusa; 1987. 251 p.
29. Patel JG, Joshi DV, Patel BJ, Raval SH. Pathology of experimentally induced acute toxicity of potassium dichromate in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Indian J Vet Pathol, 2017; 41(1):75-77.
30. Khan MR, Siddiqui S, Parveen K, Javed S, Diwakar S, Siddiqui WA. Nephroprotective action of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil against potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced acute renal injury in rats. Chem-Biol Interact, 2010; 186(2):228-238.
31. Singh AP, Muthuraman A, Jaggi AS, Singh N, Grover K, Dhawan R. Animal models of acute renal failure. Pharmacol Rep, 2012; 64(1):31-44.
32. Becerra SL, Rodríguez ML, Jaramillo F, Martínez MC, Rodríguez MG, Reyes MA et al. Nefrotoxicidad producida por el cromo y actividad urinaria de la dipeptidilaminopeptidasa IV en ratas. Efecto protector de la Quercetina. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, 2008; 39(3):5-11.
33. Shah G, Kaur M, Dhabiliya F, Shri R. Pharmacognostic Standarization of Cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf leaves. Pharmacogn J, 2012; 29(4):19-25.
34. Mori NC, Horn RC, Oliveira C, Gelatti GT, Klafke JZ, Tissiani AC et al. Effect of the Cymbopogon citratus Infusion on the Activity of Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme and on the Redox Profile in Farmers´ Erythrocytes. J Agric Sci, 2017; 9(9): 68-77.
35. Gowda S, Desai PB, Kulkarni SS, Hull VV, Math AAK, Vernekar SN. Markers of renal function tests. N Am J Med Sci, 2010; 2(4):170-173.
36. Hanisa H, Hadijah H, Rasedee A, Tarmizi AS. Sub-acute oral administration of Cymbopogon citratus stem infusion and its effects on blood biochemical parameters, body and organ weights in rats. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 2011; 39(1):1-7.
37. Haggag MH. Protective Effect of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) Water Extract Against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cisplatin of Male Rats. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Health, 2015; 6(1):81-92.
38. Ekpenyong CE, Daniel NE, Antai AB. Effect of Lemongrass Tea Consumption on Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Creatinine Clearance Rate. J Renal Nutr, 2015; 25(1):57-66.
39. Wright EM, Hirayama BA, Loo DF. Active sugar transport in health and disease. J Intern Med, 2007; 261(1):32-43.
40. Alsahli M, Gerich JE. Renal glucose metabolism in normal physiological conditions and in diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2017; 133:1-9.
41. Arreola-Mendoza L, Reyes JL, Melendez E, Martín D, Namorado MC, Sanchez E et al. Alpha-tocopherol protects against the renal damage caused by potassium dichromate. Toxicology, 2006; 218(2-3):237-246.
42. Fallas Ramírez JM. La farmacocinética del acetaminofén se modifica en ratas con insuficiencia renal aguda e insuficiencia hepática aguda [master´s thesis]. Mexico DF: Instituto Politécnico Nacional; 2011. 71 p.
43. Arreola-Mendoza L, Del Razo LM, Mendoza-Garrido ME, Martin D, Namorado MC, Calderon-Salinas JV et al. The protective effect of alpha-tocopherol against dichromate-induced renal tight junction damage is mediated via ERK1/2. Toxicol Lett, 2009; 191(2-3):279-288.
44. Maunsbach AB, Christensen EI. Functional Ultrastructure of the Proximal Tubule. Compr Physiol, 2011; 1(Suppl 25):41-107.
45. Fatima S, Arivarasu NA, Banday AA, Yusufi ANK, Mahmood R. Effect of potassium dichromate on renal brush border membrane enzymes and phosphate transport in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol, 2005; 24(12):631-638.
46. Fox SI. Fisiología humana. 14th edition. México DF: McGraw Hill; 2016.
47. Jackson EK. Fármacos que afectan la función excretora renal. In: Brunton LL, Hilal-Dandan R, Knollman BC, editors. Goodman & Gilman: Las Bases Farmacológicas de la Terapéutica. 13th edition. Ciudad de México: McGraw-Hill; 2018.
48. Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Ganong. Fisiología médica. 25th edition. México DF: McGraw Hill; 2016.
49. Esson ML, Schrier RW. Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Tubular Necrosis. Ann Intern Med, 2002; 137(9):744-752.
50. Palmer BF. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2015; 10(6):1050-1060.
51. Palmer LG, Schnermann J. Integrated Control of Na Transport along the Nephron. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2015; 10(4):676-687
52. Sancho-Martínez SM, López-Novoa JM, López Hernández FJ. Pathophysiological role of different tubular epithelial cell death modes in acute kidney injury. Clin Kidney J, 2015; 8(5):548-559.
53. Hegazy R, Salama A, Mansour D, Hassan A. Renoprotective Effect of Lactoferrin against Chromium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats: Involvement of IL-18 and IGF-1 Inhibition. PLoS ONE, 2016; 11(3):e0151486.
54. García-Niño WR, Tapia E, Zazueta C, Zatarain-Barrón ZL, Hernández-Pando R, Vega-García CC et al. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013; 2013:424692.
55. Greaves P. Histopathology of Preclinical Toxicity Studies. 4th ed. United Kingdom: Academic Press; 2012. 892 p.
56. Sauvanet C, Wayt J, Pelaseyed T, Bretscher A. Structure, Regulation, and Functional Diversity of Microvilli on the Apical Domain of Epithelial Cells. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 2015; 31:593-621.
57. Brown JW, McKnight CJ. Molecular Model of the Microvillar Cytoskeleton and Organization of the Brush Border. PLoS One, 2010; 5(2):e9406.
Statistics
103 Views | 117 Downloads
How to Cite
Navilla, A., Manuel, F. R., Josué, O., Alexander, R. A., & José, M. R. (2019). Absence of Renal Protection of an Aqueous Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Cultivated in Costa Rica, Using a Model of Acute Renal Failure in Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 7(6), 11-19. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22270/ajprd.v7i6.617